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Unit VIII: Instrumental Music of the Baroque
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Unit VIII: Instrumental Music of the Baroque

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    1. Unit VIII: Instrumental Music of the Baroque Chapter 25 The Baroque Sonata and Concerto

    3. Baroque Instruments Strings Finest instruments the world has seen constructed by Stradivarius, Guarneri and Amati Strings made of gut rather than steel - softer, but more penetrating sound Bows convex rather than concave sound board shallower

    4. Woodwinds Used for color, solo work Wooden transverse flute, recorder, oboe and bassoon common

    5. Brass Trumpet a favored solo instrument-still valveless Horns used often as complement to woodwinds-also natural horn

    6. Keyboard Provide harmonies in continuous setting Used as solo instruments Organ-distinct sound, colors differentiate stops and highlight contrapuntal voices

    7. Keyboard Harpsichord Strings plucked by quills Tones do not sustain, therefore ornamentation abounds Double keyboard provide subtleties of sonority and dynamics

    8. Keyboard Clavichord A favorite home instrument Strings struck by metal tangents Sound sustains, as long as key is depressed Both clavichord and harpsichord replaced by piano by the end of the 18th Century

    9. Sonata Types Chamber sonata usually a group of stylized dances Church sonata which is more serious in tone and more contrapuntal in texture. Trio Sonata- written for two violins and continuo therefore name is misleading as it refers to the parts and not to the # of players for which it is written. Solo sonata- written for unaccompanied instruments; notable composers are Domenico Scarlatti and J.S. Bach

    10. Concerto types Orchestral form for soloist(s) contrasted against the full orchestra Typically 3 movements-Allegro (fast), Adagio (slow), Allegro (fast) Solo concerto-violin most common in the Baroque

    11. Concerto types Concerto grosso-small group of soloists (concertino) Vs. full orchestra (ripieno or tutti) Bachs six Brandenburg concertos, written for Margrave of Brandenburg, are of the concerto grosso type

    12. Antonio Vivaldi 1678-1741 Known as the Red Priest in reference to his hair

    13. Antonio Vivaldi Maestro di concerti at the Conservatorio delOspedale della Pieta, one of four orphanages for girls in Venice His orchestra made up entirely of girls form the school was known throught Europe for their precision and virtuosity Died poor in Vienna

    14. Vivaldis Music Rapid scale passages Extended arpeggios Repeated notes Contrasting registers

    15. Vivaldis Music The Four Seasons Group of 4 violin concertos Each concerto accompanied by a poem, presumably by Vivaldi, describing a particular season Each line of the poem is graphically described within the music Such a close association to literary depiction make this music programmatic

    16. Vivaldis Music La Primavera (The Spring) The least graphic, most atmospheric of the four concertos 5 part string division with continuo Poem and music evoke bird song, the gentle murmur of streams, and a storm The orchestra unifies the work with a ritornello which alternates with solo passages See pp. 150 - 151 for Listening Guide 15, (CD 1/62-67)