Baroque Instrumental Music • This is the first time that we see instrumental music sharing the same stature as vocal music. • For the first time, there was a clear separation of Vocal and Instrumental music
Baroque Instrumental Practice • There were no ‘classics’, so contemporary composers were very prolific • Modulations and chromatic harmonies and melodies. • Virtuosity (music that shows off the technical skills of the performer)
Baroque Instrumental Evolution • Early Baroque Instrumental music uplifted musical line rather than blend. Late Baroque music will focus more on the idea of blend and refined orchestration.
Keyboard Music • Equal tempered tuning
Keyboard Instruments • Three main instruments • Organ: sacred venues and some home chapels • Tracker Action • Great, positive, and portative organ • Harpsichord: basso continuo for orchestra and dance music. Solo instrument. Strings plucked by a Plectrum. • Clavichord: strings struck by hammers made originally from bone. Precursor to the piano.
Harpsichord Harpsichord, ca. 1675Made by Michele TodiniRome, Italy
The keyboard, allowed composers to think • vertically (tonal system) • rather than • horizontally (modal system) • more than one note could be played at a time.
Improvisatory style Toccata Prelude Fantasia Existing melody Chorale prelude Theme & Variations Fugal style Ricercare Fantasia Capriccio Fugue Dances Types of Instrumental Music
Toccata • From Italian verb toccare (to touch) • A work with very fast monophonic melodies with chromatic harmonies; • Free, irregular metres and rhythms; • Often improvised on the organ
The Chorale Prelude • Originally, an introduction to a hymn (chorale); Bach was the preeminent composer of Chorale Preludes • Later written down as a composition (a single variation on a chorale)
The Baroque Suite • Instrumental dance music from the Renaissance period now refined in a new style of sound and compositional technique. • Pastiche of different international styles of dance forms. • First function was dancing at social functions. • Other functions: dinner music.
Order of the Dance Suite Overture (Optional)Allemande Germany 4/4 time Moderate Courante French 3/4 time Moderate Sarabande Spain 3/4 time Slow Other Dances (Optional)Minuet Gavotte BourreeGigue England 6/8 time Fast
the founder of the French harspichord school not the first, but the first with “celebrity” Jacques Champion Chambonnieres (1601-1672)
Jacques Champion de Chambonnières (c.1601-1672) • influenced Couperin and Rameau • Chambonnieres, D’Anglebert, and de la Guerre were important early clavecinists “clavecin” is French for “harpsichord”
He was known as Couperin le Grand" (Couperin the Great) to distinguish him from the other members of his musically talented family. François Couperin 1668-1733
Innovations • Instrument building families • Stradivarius, Guarneri, and Amati • Strings • Cat gut • Slightly different playing technique….bowing • Woodwinds: mellow sound as opposed to a more brassy sound in modern times.
Innovations • Brass • Originally a military instrument for signals • Without valves • Key changes made by inserting longer or shorter crooks in the horn.
The Sonata • Evolved from the Renaissance canzona, which had several contrasting sections • Early in the 17th century, “sonata” referred to any piece for instruments • Later, “sonata” meant a piece for 1 or 2 melody instruments with basso continuo
The Sonata • Chamber Sonata:Sonata da Camera • A group of dances. • Number of movements vary • Church Sonata:Sonata da Chiesa • Serious collection of pieces • Containing polyphonic/contrapuntal texture. • Often 4 movements SFSF
The Baroque Sonata Form • Four Movements • SLOW • FAST • SLOW • FAST
The Sonata • Trio Sonata: sonata for any combination of two instruments and basso continuo. (which means 4 players)
Archangelo Corelli (1653-1713) • Studied in Bologna-center of violin playing in Northern Italy. • Worked in Rome under the patronage of several wealthy benefactors.
The Concerto • A three movement piece (FSF) music that is created from two masses or bodies of sound. • Concertare– to contend with or to compete with.
The Two Masses of Sound • Concertino: small group. • Tutti or ripieno: large group (orchestra) tutti (all) ripieno (full)
Three types of concerto • Solo concerto: A concerto featuring a soloist contending with an orchestra. • Concerto Grosso: A concerto featuring a small group contending with a larger group. • Concerto ripieno: A concerto in which all take part; no long solos
Concerto • Several contrasting movements • 1st movement uses ritornello form • Contrast between performing groups is VIMP vs • Orchestra (aka tutti) • 15-25 strings + harpsichord • louder dynamics • simpler music • Soloist(s) • 1 to 5 players • may feature woodwinds, brass • softer dynamics • technical, virtuosic
Movement 1fast, energetic, ritornello form Ritornello form a way of arranging musical ideas (melodies?) in a piece
Ritornello Form Ritornello sections played by tutti recurring theme or part of it Solo sections played by soloist(s) new material Contrast between sections is VIMPRitornello provides unity “musical glue” U U U U R1S1R2S2R3S3R4S4 etc RX C C C C C C C C C C