The first use of the term “Baroque” in music was in 1919. . Music of the Baroque Period. “Baroque” is used to describe an artistic style across different art forms . 1600 - 1750. Started in Rome, Italy. Tension, Exuberance, Grandeur, Ornate. How would you describe Baroque Art?.
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The first use of the term “Baroque” in music was in 1919. Music of the Baroque Period • “Baroque” is used to describe an artistic style across different art forms 1600 - 1750 • Started in Rome, Italy • Tension, Exuberance, Grandeur, Ornate • How would you describe Baroque Art?
Music of the Baroque Period Historical Themes • Increasing Importance of Scientific Investigation Scientists broke away from the old model of proofing prior assumptions, and instead worked on devising new hypotheses through observation and experimentation. Galileo Galilei(1564 – 1622) Isaac Newton (1642 – 1727) • Culmination of Royal Despotism Small group of leaders (Kings, queens, emperors) wielded absolute power in Europe Louis XIV of France (1638 – 1715) “l'état, c'estmoi”– “I am the state” (absolutism) Palace of Versailles
Music of the Baroque Period Historical Themescont. • Development of the New World The English, French, and Spanish holdings in the New World continued to supply Europe with wealth As generations passed, colonists began growing allegiance to their new homes, which eventually led to the independence of these lands • Artificiality & Marvelous effects valued in Arts Sculptors found ways to create the illusion of energetic, even violent movement in their works Giovanni Bernini (1598 – 1680) Painters created larger and more crowded canvases Virtuosity was highly priced in all the arts
Music of the Baroque Period Musical Context • A Time of Experimentation Embracing new idea: Music could move the listener in a real and physical way Opera, a blend of music and drama, is the full realization of this ideal Composers experimented with ways of creating impressive effects in Instrumental Musicas well
Music of the Baroque Period Musical ContextCont. • Expanding Roles of Music Music continued to be used as an important tool of statecraft(conducting public affairs) Extravagant musical styles served as rich adornment to religious services in both Catholic and Protestant churches Music, especially Opera, became an important source of entertainment for the growing merchant and land-owner classes
Music of the Baroque Period Musical ContextCont. • Growing awareness of National Styles Distinct styles in both vocal and instrumental music developed in Italy, France, and Germany Composers were aware of these differences and used them in their music. For example: A French composer would write and label a piece: “In the Italian Style” The superiority of various styles was often the subject of heated debate
Music of the Baroque Period Musical ContextCont. • Full Equality of Instrumental Music New instrumental forms, such as the *concerto and *sonata developed Instruments started playing equally important roles even in vocal music (not only as accompaniment) *Concerto – Musical composition usually in three parts (movements) in which a solo instrument is accompanied by an orchestra *Sonata – Literally means a musical piece played, and not sung (cantata). Evolved to a composition for one or two instruments, typically in three or four parts (movements) set in contrasting forms and keys
Music of the Baroque Period Musical ContextCont. • Instrumental MusicCont. Instrument makers created new types of instruments Performers reached new heights of expression and techniques Theviolinbecame the most important string instrument for its ability to showcase virtuosity Virtuosos(Antonio Vivaldi, Archangelo Corelli) reflected these abilities in their own compositions Listening: Vivaldi Violin Concerto - Spring Listening: Bach Violin Sonata No. 2 Movement 2
Music of the Baroque Period Musical Style • Textures – Primarily “Melody & Accompaniment” • Basso Continuo – Accompanimentplayed keyboard or bass instruments (Cello, Double Bass ) • Voices and instruments are freely mixed • Newly developed instruments provided rich palette of tone color • Rhythm – often taken from dance rhythms • Melodies – Ornate and often make use of dramatic leaps • Harmony– based on major/minor tonality (less modal), and dissonances become more common • Structure – Based on repetition and simple binary and ternary forms Listening: Monteverdi - BeatusVir qui timetDominum (Basso Continuo, mixing) Listening: Merula - Ciaconna for Two Violins (Basso Continuo, Dance Rhythm)
Composers of the Baroque Period Claudio Monteverdi (1567 – 1643) • Italian composer • Leading composer of late Renaissance and early Baroque • Composed: Operas: “L’Orfeo” (Greek legend of “Orpheus”) First opera to realize all its full potentials Secular Vocal: 9 books of Madrigals Sacred Vocal: Vespers (Evening Prayer) Masses, Motets, and Psalms • Music composition as an outgrowth of the written words Listening: Monteverdi – L’Orfeo
Composers of the Baroque Period Henry Purcell (1659 – 1695) • Leading English composer and organist of early Baroque • Uniquely Englishform of Baroque MusicIncorporating Italian& French elements • Composed: Opera: “Dido and Aeneas” (Virgil’s Aeneid) Semi-Opera: “The Fairy-Queen” (A Midsummer Night’s Dream) Secular & Sacred Vocal Instrumental Music Listening: Purcell – Dido and Aeneas – “When I am laid in earth” (Dido’s Lament) Listening: Purcell – The Fairy-Queen
Composers of the Baroque Period Antonio Vivaldi (1678 – 1741) • Leading Italiancomposer and violinist • Development of Concerto form His concerti are definitive of the genre in the Baroque, into the Classical Era • Composed: Orchestral Music: Over 500 Concerti (239 for the violin), including The Four Seasons (Program Music) Chamber Music Sacred Vocal: Oratorio, Mass, Hymn Secular Vocal: Cantatas and over 50Operas Listening: Vivaldi Violin Concerto – Le Quattro Stagioini “The Four Seasons”
Composers of the Baroque Period George Frideric Handel (1685 – 1759) • Leading English composer, German by birth • Contrast to J. S. Bach: Composed for the public; man of the world; a world traveler • Celebrated as English National Treasure • “The Messiah” and the “Hallelujah Chorus” • Composed: Sacred & Secular vocal music: Operas (over 40),Oratorios, Cantatas, Arias Instrumental Music Concerti, Sonatas, Suites, Chamber Music Listening: Handel – Messiah “Hallelujah Chorus”
Composers of the Baroque Period Johann Sebastian Bach(1685 – 1750) • Most famous and most important Germancomposerand organistof the Baroque era (and maybe all time) – a true genius • Created music of the highest-level of craftsmanship based employers’ demand • Studied works of his contemporaries • Deeply religious, passion for completeness • Composed: Sacred & Secular Vocal: Cantatas, Motets, Passions, Mass, Oratorio, etc. Instrumental Music: Concerti, Suites, Sonatas & Partitas, Keyboard Music, Organ Music Listening: 1. Toccata & Fugue 2. Chaconne 3. St. Matthew’s Passion