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The Byzantine Empire and Russia

The Byzantine Empire and Russia

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The Byzantine Empire and Russia

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  1. The Byzantine Empire and Russia

  2. The Byzantine Empire • Objectives • Identify the factors that contributed to the growth & strength of the Byzantine Empire • Explain how the Christian church came to be divided • Analyze the cultural contributions made by the Byzantines • Explain the factors that contributed to the down fall of the Byzantine Empire

  3. The Byzantine Empire

  4. The Byzantine Empire • Justinian Code was a collection of Roman laws • Code- contained useful Roman laws • Digest- summarized Roman legal opinions • Institutes- guide for law students • Novellae- laws passed after AD 534

  5. Byzantine Empire • Justinian Code • Formed basis of Byzantine law • Provided framework for many European legal systems • Preserved Roman idea that people should be ruled by laws, not by leaders whims • Able Advisors • Theodora- encouraged Justinian to increase women's rights • Altered divorce laws, allowed Christian women to own property equal to a dowry • Belisarius- General of the army, ended Nika revolt

  6. Strengths of the Empire • Strong and Centralized Government • Officials were skilled, efficient, well paid • Created alliances through marriages • Military forces well trained, weapons/armor well designed • Greek Fire- chemical weapon of the Navy, liquid that burst into flames • Eastern Roman Empire • Constantinople was source of strength, location allowed control of sea trade routes between Europe and Asia

  7. The Christian Church • Icon- holy picture of Jesus, the Virgin Mary, or the Saints • Iconoclasts- believed having icons was the same as worshipping idols • Iconoclastic Controversy was a battle about the use of icons in the Christian Church

  8. The Christian Church

  9. Byzantine Culture • Cyril and Methodius created the Cyrillic alphabet to teach the Bible to Slavs • Art • Religion was the main subject • Murals, Paintings, icons, and mosaics • Location of image important • Helped people look toward the afterlife

  10. Byzantine Culture • Architecture • Built the Hagia Sophia…a church • Byzantines were the 1st to solve the issue of putting a dome over a rectangular building

  11. The Decline • After Justinian died the empire was weakened and taken over by various groups from different locations • The Seljuiq Turks capture of Asia Minor affected the empire because it was a source for food and soldiers. • Western Roman Empire helped regain Constantinople but later captured the city • The Byzantine Empire was conquered by the Ottoman Turks

  12. The Rise of Russia • Objectives • Explain why different peoples settled in Eastern Europe • Describe how Kievan Russia differed from the Byzantine Empire

  13. The Setting and People • Ural Mountains serve as a border between Europe and Asia • The steppe covers the southern part of the great plains of Russia • Rivers crisscross the plain to provide transportation • Eastern Europe primarily populated by the Slavs • Vikings moved into Eastern Europe to build trade routes

  14. Kievan Russia • Cities of Kiev and Novgorod lie along the Viking trade route • Rurik- leader of the Rus people • Kiev prospered bc of location as trade route between Constantinople and the Baltic Sea • Kiev served as the capital for 300 years

  15. Kievan Government • Governed by princes and a council of nobles called boyars • Held town meetings (veche) to and discuss important matters…war and disputes between princes • Yaroslav the wise introduced the Pravda Russkia, a code of laws • “Russian Justice” was a combination of fines and vengeance

  16. Kievan Religion • Traders and Greek missionaries brought Christianity to the area • Vladimir I- 1st Russian ruler to convert to Christianity in order to marry Byzantine emperor daughter • Ordered Kievan Russia to become Christian • Many worshipped the spirits of their ancestors or gods of nature • Religious writings, singing, and art dominated the culture

  17. Kievan Economy • 2 agricultural regions, the steppe and taiga • Traded agricultural products and provided slaves to the Byzantines • Trade helped develop Kievan into a strong, wealthy power • Kievan Class Society • Local Princes and family • Boyars • Town Artisans and merchants devoted to trade • Peasants, produced all crops that fed Russia • Clergy- performed religious ceremonies and ran the hospitals and charities

  18. Russia and the Mongols • Objectives • Identify the ways in which Mongol rule affected Kievan Russia. • Describe the effects of Moscow’s growing power and independence.

  19. Attacks on Kiev • Reasons for decline • Declined due to infighting among Kievan rulers sons • Turkish Polovtsy controlled trade south of Kiev • Competition with Italian city-states that developed new trade routes • The sacking of Kiev • Mongol Invasion

  20. Kievan under the Mongols • Ruled from 1240 to about 1500 • Gained wealth by taxing heavily • Used peasants for as labor for projects • Mongol influence • Built roads to improve transportation • Improved communication • Customs, traditions, behavior, and some language entered Russian Society

  21. Kievan Russia & its neighbor • Lithuania and Poland established hostile kingdom to the eastern Slavs • Poland converted to Catholicism (Western Christianity) • Other Slavs kept the eastern Orthodox religion • Slavs become suspicious of Western Europeans

  22. Rise of Moscow • Prince Ivan I was known as the Great Prince by the Mongols • Head of the Orthodox Church moved to Moscow • Ivan the Great • Took control and power away from the Mongols • Established independent state of Russia • Began absolute monarchy in Russia

  23. Ivan IV…the Terrible • Became heir to throne at age of 3 • Took the title of czar • Developed modern legal system and code • Renewed trade with Western Europe • Formed the oprichniki to arrest boyars • Laid foundation for new Russian state that stretched from Siberia to the Caspian Sea

  24. Church Growth • Grew richly by acquiring land and donations • Became the center of the Orthodox Church after the fall of Constantinople • Called Moscow the “Third Rome” • Elaborate dome churches • Thought churches would inspire people & make Russia the spiritual light to the whole world.