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The Byzantine Empire and Russia. The Byzantine Empire. The Growth of Byzantine Power Constantinople was the vital center of the empire Located on the Bosporus Busy market & “center of the world” Existed nearly 1000 years after the fall of Rome. Emperors lived in splendor.

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the byzantine empire
The Byzantine Empire

The Growth of Byzantine Power

  • Constantinople was the vital center of the empire
    • Located on the Bosporus
    • Busy market & “center of the world”
  • Existed nearly 1000 years after the fall of Rome.
  • Emperors lived in splendor.
The Age of Justinian
  • The empire reached its greatest size under the emperor Justinian.
  • He was determined to reunite the Roman Empire & conquered areas all the way to Spain.
  • To restore Roman glory, he launched a program to beautify Const…
Built the church of Hagia Sophia
  • Best remembered for his reform of the law – Corpus JurisCivilis (Civil Law) – Justinians’ Code
    • Used later in W. Europe
  • Used the law to unite and ruled as an autocrat
  • Aided by his wife, Theodora who was a stripper and later a shrewd politician
After Justinian, there were many attacks on the empire by Vikings, Mongols, Slavs and Persians, but the peasants helped it survive.

Byzantine fortress

Byzantine Christianity
  • Different in the east and west
    • Did not have a pope, but a patriarch (an official)
    • Priests could marry
    • Services in Greek, not Latin
    • More emphasis on Easter than Christmas
  • Had a dispute over the use of icons - caused a schism
    • The emperor said it broke the 2nd commandment and banned them.
  • Battles broke out and caused a permanent split b/w Roman Catholic and Greek Orthodox.
Crisis & Collapse
  • The Seljuk Turks (Muslims) migrated westward.
  • Byzantine empire helped in the crusades.
  • In the later crusades, trade rivalries broke out w/ Venice and the Venitians attacked Constan…
  • The emperor finally reconquered but never fully recovered.
  • In 1453, Ottomans led by Muhammed II took control of Constan and changed the name to Istanbul.
Byzantine Heritage
  • Built on the culture of the Hellenistic world, blending Christian ideas w/ Greek.
  • Made unique contribution in art and architecture
    • Mosaics
  • Byzantine historians like Procopius, criticized Justinian.
  • Scholars contributed to the future European culture.
the rise of russia
The Rise of Russia

Growth of Kiev

  • During Roman times, the Slavs expanded into Russia.
  • Organized into clans
  • The Varangians (Vikings) used Russian rivers to increase trade.
  • At the heart of this network was Kiev, the center of the first Russian state.

Технология PLC применительно к Россииможетрешатьтолькопроблему «последнегодюйма». Поэтомупо-прежнемууспех в продвижениитехнологиинапрямуюзависитоттехническихвозможностей (разветвленностиинфраструктуры) операторасвязи. В любомслучаенеобходимостроитьилиарендовать «последнююмилю» отузладоступаоператора

Byzantine Influences

  • Two Greek monks (Cyril) adapted the Greek language to translate the Bible.
    • This became Russian writing
  • In 957, Princess Olga of Kiev converted to Byz. Christianity.
  • Her grandson Vladimir helped spread it and the Russians copied many Byzantine ways.
  • The Russian Orthodox Church eventually became very powerful.

Cyrillic (Russian) Text

Kiev enjoyed a golden age under Yaroslav the Wise. (1019 – 1054)
    • Written law code
    • Translated important works into Russian
    • Married his children into European royalty
  • Russia declined after him and was invaded by the Mongols.
Mongol Conquest

Genghis Khan (World Emperor) from central Asia invaded from China to Eastern Europe

Batu, his grandson, invaded Russia, and the Golden Horde ruled Russia for the next 240 years.

Russian princes were allowed to rule as long as they paid heavy tribute to the Mongols.

Genghis Khan



Mongol Influences
  • Absolute power
  • Heavy taxes
  • Women became subservient.
  • It cut Russia off from western Europe which was becoming more advanced.
Moscow Takes the Lead
  • During the Mongol period, the princes of Moscow gained power.
    • Location on river trade routes
  • Head of the R.O. Church made it his capital.
  • They rallied other Russians and defeated the Golden Horde in 1380.
  • The driving force was Ivan the Great who recovered Russian lands.
    • He took the title Czar, & became absolute ruler.
    • Married the Byzantine Emperor’s niece.
Ivan the Terrible
  • Ivan IV, grandson of Ivan the G., further centralized royal power.
  • He made laws that started feudalism when it was disappearing in W. Europe.
  • Became mentally unstable and paranoid
  • Killed his own son
  • Organized the oprichniki (secret police) that terrorized the boyars anyone disloyal
  • When he died in 1584, Russians were seething w/ rebellion.
shaping eastern europe
Shaping Eastern Europe

A Diverse Mix of People

  • The geography made for easy migration.
    • A cultural crossroad
  • Now includes many languages and cultures
  • The Balkans were mostly Slavs.
  • Had strong influences from the Byzantines & both Catholic sides
  • The Ottomans invaded in the 1300s and spread Islam.
Jewish Settlements
  • In the late Middle Ages, E. Europe was a refuge for Jews during the crusades and after the black death.
  • Monarchs from England, France, & Spain also expelled Jews.
  • Polish kings practiced toleration.

Kazimierz IV Jagiellończyk of Poland

confirmed and extended Jewish charters

in the second half of the fifteenth century