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The Byzantine Empire. Chapter 8, Sect 1. The Byzantine Empire. Fall of the Western Empire during the 400-500BC’s The Eastern, or Byzantine Empire, thrives. Chapter 8, Sect 1. The Byzantine Empire. Justinian (527-565) Ruled over Greece, Northern Balkan Peninsula, Asia Minor, Syria,

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slide1

The Byzantine Empire

Chapter 8, Sect 1

slide2

The Byzantine Empire

Fall of the Western Empire during the 400-500BC’s

The Eastern, or Byzantine Empire, thrives.

Chapter 8, Sect 1

slide3

The Byzantine Empire

  • Justinian (527-565)
  • Ruled over Greece, Northern Balkan Peninsula, Asia Minor, Syria,
  • Palestine, Egypt, & Cyrenaica.
  • Great political, economic, intellectual, & artistic REVIVAL.
  • Chose exceptional people (Theodora & Belisarius)
  • Re-conquered part of Western Empire
  • Theodora – wife, encouraged rights for women
  • Husbands cannot beat wives
  • Wives right to sue for divorce
  • Women can own property (equal to her dowry)
  • Widows not required to surrender children
  • During Nika Revolt became Justinian’s courage

Chapter 8, Sect 1

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The Byzantine Empire

  • Belisarius – Commander in Chief of Justinian’s Army
  • Was part of Justinian’s bodyguard
  • Made a name during Nika Revolt
  • His wife friend of Theodora (secured position for him)
  • Regained much of old Roman Empire for Justinian
  • Empire declined, but still survived even after Justinian
  • Civil Wars
  • Encroachment by Persians, Avars, Slavs, and finally the Muslims

Chapter 8, Sect 1

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The Byzantine Empire

Strengths or Accomplishments of the Empire

  • Political
  • Highly Centralized Gov’t.
  • Shrewd Diplomacy
  • Effective “Intelligence” program
  • Involved in agitating neighbors against each other
  • Military
  • Well organized, trained army & navy
  • Developed instruction & training manuals
  • Improved weaponry
  • Guarded the secret of “Greek Fire”
  • Economic
  • LOCATION –trade routes

Chapter 8, Sect 1

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The Byzantine Empire

The Christian Church

  • Head of Church- Patriarch of Constantinople
  • Eventually broke from Rome – became Eastern Orthodox Church
  • Debate over Icons - opposition by “Iconoclasts”
  • Heresy - speaking out against church doctrine
  • Excommunication – person barred from receiving sacred ordinances
  • Spread Christianity
  • Culture
  • Served classical learning from Greece & Rome
  • Art – beautiful architecture, mosaics
  • Hagia Sophia (holy wisdom)– Incredibly beautiful Church
  • Architecture uses compound arches & domes

Chapter 8, Sect 1

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The Byzantine Empire

  • Preservation of Roman Law
  • Collected & organized Roman statutes
  • Omitted repetitious or duplicate laws
  • Developed “Corpus juris civilis,” or “Body of Roman Law”
  • Set up in Four Parts:
    • The Code – collection of existing Roman laws (cleaned up)
    • The Digest- Topical Guide to Legal opinions
    • The Institutes- textbook of basic law
    • The Novels- collection of new laws

Chapter 8, Sect 1

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The Rise of Russia

  • Geographical Features:
  • Steppe – large grassy, nearly treeless grassy plain, rich farmland
  • Ural Mountains – considered divider between Asia & Europe
  • Several large rivers, Vistula, Neman, & Dvina, flow to the Baltic (north)
  • Dniester & Dnieper flow into Black Sea
  • Slavs & Vikings:
  • Slavs overrun by many other peoples – open plain no natural barriers
  • Vikings invade from Scandinavia in A.D. 800’s – originally as traders
  • Trading centers (cities) spring up along trade routes
  • Major cities were Novgorod (in the north), Kiev (in the south)

Chapter 8, Sect 2

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The Rise of Russia

  • Kievan Russia
  • Rus, lead by Rurik capture Novgorod & Kiev
  • Kiev became prosperous because of location on trade routes
  • Government
  • Each city ruled by a Prince & council of Boyars
  • First Russian law code – Pravda Russkaia
  • Religion
  • Vladimir I – Converts to Eastern Orthodox Christianity
  • Patriarch of Constantinople chooses Metropolitan
  • Economy
  • Agriculture & trade most important
  • Great forests north of Steppe called the Taiga
  • Social Classes
  • 1. Royalty 2. Artisans & Merchants 3. Clergy 4. Peasants (largest)

Chapter 8, Sect 2

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The Rise of the Mongols

  • Kievan Russia in Decline
  • Kiev declines in power after 1054
  • Towns & their Princes fight each other
  • Polovtsians raid from the south – trade diminishes
  • Civil War ensues – 1169 & 1203 Princes sack Kiev
  • Mongols invade from the Asian steppe
  • By 1240 Mongols had ravaged Kievan Russia
  • Kievan Russia Under the Mongols
  • Mongols did not impose their culture
  • Local rule allowed as long as taxes paid
  • Mongols improved infrastructure
  • (built roads, improved methods of taxation & communication)

Chapter 8, Sect 3

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The Rise of the Mongols

  • The Rise of Moscow
  • Prince Ivan I cooperates with Mongols, made him Grand Prince
  • Chief Metropolitan of Russian Orthodox Church moves to Moscow
  • Ivan III considers himself “Autocrat by the grace of God”
  • Ivan III, also called Ivan the Great, boots out Mongols (1480)
  • Unites the smaller principalities into the country called Russia
  • Ivan IV
  • Became ruler at 3yrs old (Boyars fought each other for power)
  • Takes power at age 17, declares himself heir to Rome & Byzantium
  • Calls himself Czar (Russian for Caesar)
  • Slaughters Boyars that he suspected of disloyalty
  • Extended the borders of Russia & centralized power

Chapter 8, Sect 3

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The Rise of the Mongols

  • The Growth of the Church
  • Increased property holdings
  • Metropolitan of Russian Orthodox Church chosen by Russian Bishops
  • Complete break w/Orthodox church in Constantinople
  • Metropolitan becomes Patriarch
  • Russians claim to be “Third Rome”
  • Invent story that Christianity brought to Russia by Andrew (12 Apostles)
  • Russia develops new confidence

Chapter 8, Sect 3