Counseling: A Compressive Profession Samuel T. Gladding Chapter 14- Career Counseling over the Life Span Kryn Palmquist And Amber Twentymen
Objectives • The Importance of Career Counseling • Associations & Credentials • The Scope of Career Counseling & Careers • Career Information • Career Development Theories & Counseling • Career Counseling With Diverse Populations
The Importance of Career Counseling • Many people need this service; Career Counseling is one of the counseling services most preferred by HS Jr/Sr & College Undergraduates • Helpful for some clients with emotional problems related to non-supportive & stress-producing environments • If career or work life is unsatisfactory, the result can be life difficulties and/or mental problems
Importance of Career Counseling (cont.) Crites (1981, pp. 14-15) states the important aspects of career counseling… • “The need for career counseling is greater than the need for psychotherapy” • “Career counseling can be therapeutic” • “Career counseling is more difficult than psychotherapy”
Associations and Credentials • National Career Development Association (NCDA) • National Employment Counselors Association (NECA) • American Counseling Association (ACA)
The Scope of Career Counseling and Careers • Hybrid discipline, often misunderstood; not always appreciated by professions/public (Burlew, 1992; Imbimbo, 1994). • Definition of career counseling: “one-to-one or small group relationship between a client and a counselor with the goal of helping the client(s) integrate and apply an understanding of self and the environment to make the most appropriate career decisions and adjustments” (Sears, 1982, p. 139).
Career Information • Career information • Career guidance • Career guidance activities • Unrealistic Aspirations • Lack of information or up-to-date information failure to make decisions or unwise choices • Dictionary of Occupational Titles (DOT) • Occupational Outlook Handbook
Computer-Assisted Career Guidance Systems (CAGSs) • SIGI-Plus (System of Interactive Guidance and Information) • DISCOVER • NOICC (National Occupational Information Coordinating Committee) DISCOVER—9 Modules: p. 348 SIGI-Plus– 5 Components p. 348
Career Development Theories and Counseling • The average person changes their job five (5!!) times in a working life (Jesser, 1983). • Trait-and Factor Theory, Psychodynamic Theory, Developmental Theories, Social-Cognitive Theories, and Comprehensive Career Counseling I like Gary Larson’s theory on how the dinosaur’s became extinct…
Trait-and-Factor Theory • Frank Parsons—believed that traits of clients should first be assessed and then systematically matched with factors inherent in various occupations. • Traits could be measured objectively and quantified • How about now? This theory stresses the interpersonal nature of careers and associated lifestyles as well as the performance requirements of a work position.
Holland’s Six Categories of Personality and Occupation • Realistic- Skilled, concrete • Investigative- Scientific, analytical • Artistic- Creative, imaginative • Social- Educational, service oriented • Enterprising- Persuasive, outgoing • Conventional-Organized, practical Example jobs for each??
Psychodynamic Theories • Anne Roe believes there is an unconscious motivation from the childhood period that influences people to choose a career in which these needs can be expressed and satisfied. • Roe describes 3 different parent-child relationship climates…
Anne Roe’s Parent-Child Relationship Climates • Emotional concentration— • Overprotection—parents do too much for the child leading to dependency • Overdemanding– parents emphasize achievement • Avoidance of the child— • Neglectful parenting—little effort made to satisfy the child’s needs • Rejecting parenting—no effort is made to satisfy the child’s needs • Acceptance of the child • Acceptance may be casual or more actively loving; in either case, independence is encouraged
Murray Bowen (1980) • Approach: The uniqueness of people is interconnected with their family of origin. • Family or career genogram—provides a direct and relevant framework for use with clients to shed light on many topics, including their worldviews, possible environmental barriers, personal-work family role conflicts, ethnic identity status and issues, and levels of acculturation.
Developmental Theories • Donald Super and Eli Ginzberg- base their theories on personal development. • Generally more inclusive, more concerned with longitudinal expression of career behavior, and more inclined to highlight the importance of self-concept. • Super believes that career development is the process of implementing a self-concept. • 5 Stages of vocational development…
Super’s 5 Stages of Vocational Development • Growth (birth-14) • Fantasy (4-10) • Interest (11-12) • Capacity (13-14)– children form a mental picture of themselves in relation to others. • Exploration (14-24) • Tentative (14-17) • Transition (18-21) • Trial (22-24)-exploring the world of work
5 Stages continued… • Establishment (24-44) • Trial (24-30) • Advancement (31-44)-major task of establishing oneself in a work institution • Maintenance (44-64) Preserving what one has already achieved • Decline (65-death) • Deceleration (65-70 • Retirement (71-death)
Social-Cognitive Theories • Tiedeman and Knefelkamp- 1960’s • Tiedeman and O’Hara’s social-cognitive approach outlines a seven-stage model on career decision: exploration, (14-18) crystallization, (18-21) choice, (18-25), clarification (18-25), induction, (21-30) reformation, (21-30) and integration (30-40). • There is some overlap, but each stage requires an individual to make a decision.
Knefelkamp and Slepitza (1976) • Decision-Making model for college students: • locus of control • Analysis • Synthesis • openness to alternative perspectives • Note: This process lacks measurement of the processes on which it focuses. It has not been studied in a non-college population.
Krumboltz (1979) • Formulated an equally comprehensive but less developmental social-cognitive approach. • 4 factors that influence a person’s career choice: genetic endowment, conditions and events in the environment, learning experiences, and task-approach skills
Comprehensive Career Counseling • Career-development assessment and counseling (C-DAC) model (Hartung et al., 1998) • Another is Crite’s (1981) model based on the general systems of counseling and psychotherapy • C-DAC-views the client as an individual in a constantly changing environment (Osborne & Niles, 1994; Super, Osborne, Walsh, Brown, & Niles, 1992)
C-DAC Model • The C-DAC model is employed over the life span and holds promise for multicultural career theory and practice because it already incorporates “important culturally based variables such as work role importance and values” (Hartung et al., 1998, p. 277)
Crite’s Model • Crite’s model advocates that counselors make three assessments of a client’s career issues: • Differential (what the issues are) • Dynamic (why issues have occurred) • Decisional (how the issues are being dealt with) • Once the issues are assessed, the counselor can use resolution strategies that can be expected to produce a more fully functioning individual.
Crite’s Methods • Electric methods—uses client centered and developmental counseling to identify problems. • Middle Stage– dominated by psychodynamic techniques, such as interpretation, to understand how problems occur. • Final Stage– uses trait-and-factor and behavioral approaches to resolve problems.
Career Counseling with Diverse Populations • Career counseling and education are practiced with a wide variety of cultures and diverse settings. • Brown (1985) states most career counseling is done within colleges, counseling centers, rehabilitation facilities, employment offices and public schools. • Career concerns are not covered in the DSM-IV-TR, therefore, most health care providers will not cover career counseling
Difficulties • 3 Factors prior and in the decision making process • Lack of readiness • Lack of information • Inconsistent information
Career Counseling with Children • Process begins in preschool and elementary years • Herr and Cramer (1996) cite numerous studies to show that during the first six years of school, many children develop a relatively stable self-perception and make a rough sketch of a future occupation
…with Adolescents • The American School Counselor Association emphasizes that school counselors should deliver career education with others from in and out of the school • Middle School- work exploration, evaluation of strengths/weaknesses & talent/skills (Cole, 1982) • High School- dependant on maturity, stimulating career development, providing treatment, and aiding placement
Adolescents (cont.) • Techniques: • Cognitive • Providing Fundamental Informationincluding Career Entry Career Development (Ex. Career Day, Career Fair, Occupational Family Tree) • Guided Fantasies(ex. Typical day in the future, Awards Ceremony, Mid Career Change, Retirement) • Experiential & Comprehensive • Apprenticeships • Work-based learning • At-Risk Student Guidelines: • 1. Make Connection between present and future status • 2. Individualize Programs & Communicate Caring • 3. From Coalitions with community institutions & businesses • 4. Integrate sequencing of Career Development Activities • 5. Offer age-appropriate & stage-appropriate career development activities • 6. Use media & Career Development resources (ex. Computers)
…with College Students • Career related problems experienced by about ½ of all college students! (can you relate?) • NEED & VALUE career counseling • Not adequately informed prior to seeking career counseling expertise • Services: • Selection of major field of study • Psychological testing to assist in self-assessment & self-analysis • Career fairs, internships & campus interviews • Decision-making skills • Meeting needs of special populations
…with Adults • Career interest tends to be more stable after college, yet they continue to seek career counseling services • A cycle of stability and transition is continually experienced • Mid-life career change is common (reasons…) • Approaches: • Differential • Developmental • Elements: • Developmental • Comprehensive • Self-in-group • Longitudinal • Mutual Commitment • Multimethodological PG 365- Chart
…with Women & Ethnic Minorities • …have faced many barriers (overcoming stereotypes, traditional roles, etc.) • Women: “an urgent need for career counseling interventions…that will persuade young women to consider the economic benefits of nontraditional career choices” (VanBuren et al., 1993, p. 101)
Women (cont.) • Women: • Increased research performed on women in the workforce • Counselors must be aware of an sensitive toward women’s needs • “Glass Ceiling” • Combining Career & Family (rather than “either/or choice” • Combine Career + Life Counseling • Future: focus on shift from producing goods to producing services • Result subjected to economic forces (poverty, social welfare, dependence on men) • Other Groups: • Displaced homemakers • Late-Entry or Delayed-Entry Women
Ethnic Minorities (cont.) • Very diverse…impossible to know all of the factors a career counselor may face. • Difficult time being employed due to discrimination, lack of skills, limited access to information that lead to good jobs (Leong, 1995) • Counselors must be sensitive toward special needs in establishing themselves in jobs. • Artificial –vs- Real Barriers • Career Awareness Programs • Need expressed for Job Search Assistance: • 27% of US adults • 44% African Americans • 36% Asian/Pacific Islander • 35% Hispanics/Latinos (NCDA, 1990)
…with Gays, Lesbians, Bisexuals & Transgenders • Not often considered in career counseling • “Should I disclose my orientation at work?”Face personal and professional concerns • Special attention should be given by counselors to help assess their specific lifestyle with work environments. • Assess community’s stereotyping; gauge personal, professional, and environmental biases • Education about discrimination in the workplace: blackmail, ostracism, harassment, exclusion and termination • “Lavender Ceiling”
Summary & Conclusion • Associations (NCDA & NECA) • Major Theories • Many factors influence career decisions • Increasing importance of career counseling • Career counselors perform many functions
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