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A Mediterranean Empire. Part Two: Rome enters the Greek East. Rome and the Mediterranean. Alexander’s Legacy: The Hellenistic World. Antigonid Macedonia Seleucid Syria Ptolemaic Egypt Lesser Kingdoms and Independent States: Pergamum, Rhodes, Bithynia, Bactria

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a mediterranean empire

A Mediterranean Empire

Part Two: Rome enters the Greek East

alexander s legacy the hellenistic world
Alexander’s Legacy: The Hellenistic World
  • Antigonid Macedonia
  • Seleucid Syria
  • Ptolemaic Egypt
  • Lesser Kingdoms and Independent States: Pergamum, Rhodes, Bithynia, Bactria
  • “Wild Cards” in Greece: Achaean and Aetolian Confederations
rome s first step into the greek world the first illyrian war 229 228 bce
Rome’s First Step into the Greek World: The First Illyrian War (229-228 BCE)
  • Illyrian Aggression against Italian maritime trade (Agron and Teuta)
  • The Roman commission of the Coruncanii
  • The Campaign of Spring 229 (20,000 infantry and 2,000 cavalry)
  • Treaty with Queen Teuta (Polybius 2.12):
    • Indemnity (unspecified)
    • Evacuate large portions of Illyria
    • Forbidden to sail beyond Lissus with more than two galleys

“When [the treaty with Queen Teuta] had been concluded, Postumius sent envoys to the Aetolian and Achaean Leagues. On their arrival these officers first explained the reasons which had led to the war and caused the Romans to cross the Adriatic, next they gave a report of what had been accomplished in the campaign, and lastly they read out the treaty which they had made with the Illyrians. The envoys were received with courtesy by both the leagues, after which they returned by sea to Corcyra. The conclusion of this treaty had delivered the Greeks from a fear which had hung over them all, for the Illyrians were not merely the opponents of this people or that, but the common enemies of all alike.”

Polybius, 2.12

rome and macedonia
Rome and Macedonia
  • Philip V and Hannibal, the pact of 215 BCE
  • The First Macedonian War (214-205 BCE), minimal Roman effort (Peace of Phoenice)
  • The Second Macedonian War (200-196 BCE)
    • Rhodes and Pergamum complain of Philip’s aggression in eastern Mediterranean (alliance with Seleucid Syria against weakened Ptolemies, 203-202)
    • Cynoscephalae (197) demonstrates superiority of manipular formation over phalanx
    • Flamininus’ Isthmian Proclamation, 196 BCE (Greek Freedom)
carthaginian macedonian alliance of 215 bce

Carthaginian-Macedonian Alliance of 215 BCE

“And you will render assistance to us in the war in which we are engaged with the Romans until the gods vouchsafe the victory to us and to you, and you will give us such help as we have need of or as we agree upon.”

Polybius, Histories, 7.9

antiochene war 192 189 bce
Antiochene War, 192-189 BCE
  • Antiochus III the Great, King of Seleucid Syria
    • “Spear-Won” Empire
    • The Eastern Campaign
  • Disgruntled Aetolians and the “Treaty of Laevinus” (212/211 BCE)
  • The Battle at Magnesia
    • Scipios command Roman forces
laevinus treaty 212 211 bce

Laevinus Treaty, 212/211 BCE

“If any cities of those [enemy] nations are seized by force by the Romans, as far as the Roman people are concerned the Aetolian people may take possession of those cities and those territories; whatever [movable] property the Romans capture the Romans shall possess. If any of those cities are captured by the Romans and the Aetolians jointly, as far as the Roman people are concerned the Aetolians may take possession of those cities and their territories; whatever they [jointly] capture besides the city, they shall share it equally. If any of those cities capitulates or surrenders [without resistance] to the Romans or the Aetolians, as far as the Roman people are concerned those men and cities and their territories may be admitted by the Aetolians into their league.”

Supplementum Epigraphicum Graecum, XIII, no. 382

third macedonian war 172 167 bce
Third Macedonian War, 172-167 BCE
  • King Perseus of Macedonia, son of Philip V
    • Addresses socio-economic problems in Greece, including debt relief
    • Eumenes II of Pergamum stirs up Roman suspicions against Perseus
    • Roman propaganda represents Perseus as a social revolutionary
  • The Battle at Pydna, 168 BCE
  • The 1,000 hostages (Polybius)
  • The Four “Independent” Macedonian Republics
rome greece patron client
  • Flamininus’ Isthmian Proclamation (196 BCE)—Catch 22?
  • Classic Misunderstandings: Rome and Aetolia (The Macedonian-Aetolian Peace Treaty of 206; Glabrio, Phaneas, deditio, and chains)
  • Rhodes and Pergamum as Arbiters
    • Rhodes and the free port at Delos
    • Romans foster internal discord at Pergamum
  • Antiochus IV Epiphanes and “The Day of Eleusis” in 168 (Polyb. 29.27.1-9)
  • Andriscus and the Macedonian Revolt, 149 BCE
  • Achaean War, Roman sacking of Corinth, 146 BCE
  • The Third Punic War, Sack of Carthage in 146 BCE
c popillius laenas antiochus iv epiphanes and the day of eleusis 168 bce

C. Popillius Laenas, Antiochus IV Epiphanes, and “The Day of Eleusis,” 168 BCE

“At the time when Antiochus approached Ptolemy and meant to occupy Pelusium, Caius Popillius Laenas, the Roman commander, on Antiochus greeting him from a distance and then holding out his hand, handed to the king…the copy of the senatorial decree, and told him to read it first…But when the king…said he would like to communicate with his friends…Popillius acted in a manner which was thought to be offensive and exceedingly arrogant. He was carrying a stick cut from a vine, and with this he drew a circle round Antiochus and told him he must remain inside this circle until he gave his decision…The king was astonished at this authoritative proceeding, but, after a few minutes hesitation, said he would do all that the Romans demanded.”

Polybius, 29.27.1-6