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Building a Muslim Empire
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  1. Building a Muslim Empire Section 10-2 pp. 310-316

  2. Early Challenges to Islam • Arabs Unite Under Islam • Abu Bakr was chosen as the first caliph • Forced to fight to gain loyalty from some Muslims • United Muslims expanded their empire and converted remaining Arab tribes to Islam

  3. Early Challenges to Islam • Early Victories • Great military success under first four caliphs • Conquered parts of Byzantine empire and the complete Persian empire

  4. Divisions Emerge Within Islam • A division within Islam emerged from a conflict over who should lead the Muslim community after Muhammad’s death. • The Shiites • Believed Muhammad designated his son-in-law, Ali, to be his successor • Follow authority of an imam • Descendents of Ali and Fatima • Viewed as divinely inspired religious and political leaders • Found in Iran, Iraq, Lebanon, and Yemen

  5. Divisions Emerge Within Islam • Sufis • Muslim mystics who sought communication with God through fasting, meditating, and other rituals • Spread Islam through missionary work and examples

  6. Divisions Emerge Within Islam • The Sunni • Believe any pious male of Muhammad’s tribe could be the caliph, • Has political authority over the Muslims community • Not viewed as divinely inspired nor as a prophet • Constitute about 90% of the world’s Muslims

  7. Umayyad Caliphs Build an Empire • The Umayyad Dynasty • A Sunni dynasty established by a powerful Meccan family after the death of Ali • Conquered many new lands and spread Islam to the conquered people

  8. Umayyad Caliphs Build an Empire • Expanding the Empire • Conquered parts of Spain and France in the 700s • Defeated by the Franks at the Battle of Tours • Reasons for Muslim Success • Weaknesses of other empires • Efficient fighting methods • First four caliphs united Muslims • Orderly system of government

  9. Umayyad Caliphs Build an Empire • Conquered People Are Treated Fairly • Jews and Christians granted religious tolerance • Non-Muslims held important jobs • Taxes kept empire wealthy • Looting and raids prohibited • Converts to Islam drawn to simple message, social power, or equality of believers

  10. Umayyad Caliphs Build an Empire • Decline of the Umayyad Caliphs • Arabs struggled to rule large empire • Economic tension resulted from the caliphs’ luxurious lifestyles • Unrest grew among Shiites and non-Muslims

  11. Rise of the Abbasids • The Abbasid Dynasty • Abu al-Abbas defeated the Umayyad Dynasty in 750 to establish the Abbasid Dynasty • Change Under the Abbasids • Halted military expansion • Discrimination against non-Muslims ended • Encouraged learning • Moved capital to Baghdad • Persian influence

  12. Rise of the Abbasids • Splendors of Baghdad • Center of learning and culture • Great wealth and splendor • Center of trade

  13. Rise of the Abbasids • Muslim Culture in Spain • Surviving member of Umayyad ruling family fled to Spain and established a Muslim empire there. • Rulers welcomed Jewish and Christian culture and learning • Cities such as Cordoba and Granada still exhibit Muslim influence

  14. The Muslim Empire Declines • Problems in the Empire • Local and regional rulers challenge empire • Shiite rulers challenged power • Invasions between 900-1400

  15. The Muslim Empire Declines • Seljuk Turks Take Control • Migrated from Central Asia and adopted Islam • Seljuk rulers, called sultans, ruled empire by 1055 • Mongols Sweep Across Central Asia • In 1258, Mongols attacked Baghdad and killed the last Abbasid caliph