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Services trade restrictiveness: construction services . OECD Experts Meeting on the Services Trade Restrictiveness Index (STRI) Paris, 2-3 July 2009 Massimo Geloso Grosso, Anna Jankowska and Frédéric Gonzales OECD Trade and Agriculture Directorate. Outline. Ch aracteristics of contstruction

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services trade restrictiveness construction services

Services trade restrictiveness: construction services

OECD Experts Meeting on the Services Trade Restrictiveness Index (STRI)

Paris, 2-3 July 2009

Massimo Geloso Grosso, Anna Jankowska and Frédéric Gonzales

OECD Trade and Agriculture Directorate

outline
Outline
  • Characteristics of contstruction
  • Review of the methodology
  • Results
  • Robustness checks
  • Relevance for trade
  • Conclusions
characteristics of construction services
Characteristics of construction services
  • Accounts for a considerable share of GDP and employment
  • Establishment abroad is often a necessity for trade to take place
    • Requires local production
    • Short versus more permanent establishment
  • Government procurement is an important driver of demand
  • Prone to corruption
identification of barriers
Identification of barriers
  • Identification according to three criteria
    • Regulations covered by the GATS framework
    • Restrictions included in RTAs
    • Regulations identified as relevant at the 2008 OECD Experts Meeting on Construction Services
  • Main sources of information
    • OECD PMR
    • OECD FDI Regulatory Restrictiveness Index
    • OECD Code of Liberalisation of Capital Movements
    • OECD Employment Statistics database
categories of measures
Categories of measures
  • Restrictions on foreign ownership and other market entry conditions
  • Restrictions on the movement of people
  • Discriminatory measures, standards and equivalence
  • Barriers to competition
  • Regulatory transparency and licensing/permit systems
classification of restrictions
Classification of restrictions
  • STRI according to the GATS framework
    • Market access and national treatment
    • Domestic regulation and other
    • Modes of supply
  • Establishment of firms versus their ongoing operations
  • Discriminatory versus non-discriminatory measures
scoring and weighting
Scoring and weighting
  • All variables are transformed into binary
    • 90% of the measures are binary
  • Expert judgment forms the basis for the weighting scheme
    • Weights to each category of measures according to the ranking at the Experts Meeting on Construction Services
    • Equal weights have been applied to measures within each category
  • Other weighting schemes have been employed as robustness checks
    • Principal component analysis
    • Equal weights
    • Random weights
robustness checks and relevance for trade
Robustness checks and relevance for trade
  • STRI robust to all alternative weighting schemes
  • Spearman rank correlations of weighting schemes
    • Equal weights: 0.92
    • PCA weights: 0.76
  • STRI correlated with FDI stocks
    • Entry mode
    • Import data for construction services
conclusions
Conclusions
  • The most important restrictions take the form of domestic regulations and other measures constraining service provision after establishment
  • The STRI is robust to alternative weighting schemes
  • Some evidence that it is correlated with FDI
    • Results are not robust