FITNESS & TRAINING PROGRAMS. What is the difference between exercise and physical activity?. subset of physical activity: a planned , structured, repetitive movement of the body designed to improve or maintain physical fitness.
What is the difference between exercise and physical activity? • subset of physical activity: a planned, structured, repetitive movement of the body designed to improve or maintain physical fitness • any body movement carried out by the skeletal muscles and requiring energy EXERCISE PHYSICAL ACIVITY
Physical Activity • Very Light Activities • An increase in standing activities • Chair exercise videos • Rubber tubing exercises • Stretching while standing • Light Activities • Slow walking (e.g., 30 min/mile) • House cleaning • Light yard work • Rubber tubing exercise • Stretching while standing • Golf • Moderate Activities • Walking 15 min/mile • Weeding and hoeing a garden • Carrying groceries • Climbing stairs • Dancing
Why do we need to exercise? • To be happy • To be healthy • To live longer • To reduce the chance of disease • To develop strong bones and muscles • To have good posture • To keep our hearts healthy • To manage stress • To get our brains working • To control our weight • To give us more energy overall!
What do you think my training program should have? • Train the Way You Want Your Body to Change • Train regularly • Start Slowly, and Get in Shape Gradually • Warm Up Before Exercise • Cool Down After exercise • Exercise Safely • Listen to Your Body, and Get Adequate Rest
I’m going to start a training program…what do I do first? • 1. Make sure exercise is safe for you – if unsure ask your doctor! • 2. Decide what you want to train – do I want to be heart fit? – do I want to get muscles? – do I want to loose weight? (fitness tests can help you know your strengths and weaknesses) • Set goals – what do you want to achieve and when. • Select the activities you want to do – make it as interesting and fun as you can so you stick to it!
What are the 3 main areas of a training session? • Everyone should perform a warm upprior to each training session • A general activity session where you are training your muscles for your goals • A cool downafter any training, relax for 5-10 minutes by stretching, which could possibly prevent soreness
The warm-up • Used to prepare the body for physical exercise • Prevents injury from doing strenuous activity when your body isn’t ready for it. • these basic requirements need to be satisfied: • the pulse rate should be gradually raised to a level approaching that experienced during the activity(doing a slow cardio activity to get the body moving) • The muscles should be stretched so that they are ready for harder work.
The Cool Down • the purpose of the cool down is the opposite of the warm up • when the body has been working hard it must allowed to return gradually to its normal resting state • the main two reasons for a cool down (warming down) are: • 1 – reduce your heart rate back to a normal resting one. • 2 – removing lactic acid from the muscles so that we don’t feel too sore the next day.
The Application of Training Principles • In developing a training or exercise programme we need to consider a few things… • SPECIFICITY • OVERLOAD • THE F.I.T.T PRINCIPLE
SPECIFICITY - training must be specific to the sport or activity, the type of fitness required and the particular muscle groups. For example, marathon runners will do mostly endurance work (long runs). Whereas, swimmers exercise ‘swim specific muscles’ • OVERLOAD - training must be raised to a higher level than normal to create the extra demands to which the body will adapt. This can be done in three ways: - working harder (intensity), training more often (frequency), working longer (duration)
The F.I.T.T Principle • All training programs should include the following: • FREQUENCY -how often. Experts suggest that at a basic level three sessions per week is the minimum frequency that is needed to acquire and maintain a healthy fitness level. • INTENSITY -how hard. For general improvement of health it is essential that the heart rate is raised to between 60 and 85 % of the maximum heart rate (MHR) for a specific age. This is known as the safe training zone.
TIME -for most people 30 minutes exercise will raise the heart rate above 60 % of the MHR. • TYPE - the type of training activity will reflect the groups or individuals specific needs – for example if I am a weightlifter I don’t want to run for 2 hours a day…I want to lift weights and build my muscles up.
DO NOW • E.g.: Heart rate-100 • Heart rate-90 Heart rate-76
When I train what happens to my body? • IMMEDIATE SHORT-TERM • BREATHING – I am taking more oxygen into my body so my breathing becomes faster. • PULSE RATE – my heart is pumping more blood to my muscles so it is beating faster. • CIRCULATION – blood is moving faster around my body to make my muscles move. • MUSCLES – get more blood flowing into them which makes them more supple and less likely to tear or strain • SWEATING – our body works to cool us and remove bad wastes through our pores. We start to clean our body.
LONG TERM EFFECTS OF EXERCISE • GENERAL WELL BEING - we are able to cope with the demands of everyday living (less stress, better appetite, sleep better) • HEART RATE – our resting rate falls making us generally fitter. • BODY COMPOSITION – our body looks better • MUSCLE SIZE – we get defined muscles • AN OVERALL HEALTHIER PERSON!!!