Health-Related Fitness vs. Skill-Related Fitness. Total physical fitness includes: Health-related fitness. This is your ability to become and stay physically healthy. Skill-related fitness. This is your ability to maintain high levels of performance on the playing field.
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Health-Related Fitness vs. Skill-Related Fitness Total physical fitness includes: • Health-related fitness. This is your ability to become and stay physically healthy. • Skill-related fitness. This is your ability to maintain high levels of performance on the playing field.
Health-Related Fitness There are five components of health-related fitness: • Body composition • Cardiovascular fitness • Muscular strength • Muscular endurance • Flexibility
Fitnessgram Test for Health related fitness • @ Body Fat/BMI: Body composition • Pacer/Mile run: Cardiovascular fitness • Pushups: Muscular strength • Curlups: Muscular endurance • Sit & Reach: Flexibility
Health-Related Fitness vs. Skill-Related Fitness Body composition is the relative percentage of body fat to lean body tissue.
Health-Related Fitness vs. Skill-Related Fitness Cardiovascular fitness is the ability of your body to work continuously for extended periods of time. Cardiovascular fitness is sometimes called cardiorespiratory endurance.
Term to Know Energy cost The amount of energy needed to perform different physical activities or exercise. Health-Related Fitness vs. Skill-Related Fitness Muscular strength: maximum amount of force a muscle or muscle group can exert against an opposing force. It contributes to more efficient movement and reduces your energy cost.
Health-Related Fitness vs. Skill-Related Fitness Muscular endurance: ability of the same muscle or muscle group to contract for an extended period of time without undue fatigue. The higher your level of muscular endurance, the lower your energy cost.
Health-Related Fitness vs. Skill-Related Fitness Flexibility: ability to move a body part through a full range of motion. A moderate to high level of flexibility is central to efficient physical movement.
Health-Related Fitness vs. Skill-Related Fitness The Benefits of Flexibility Helps reduce your risk for muscle and bone injuries. Improves performance fitness. Reduces some types of muscle soreness following physical activity or exercise. Improves functional health and fitness.
Skill-Related Fitness Skill-related fitness has six components: • Agility • Balance • Coordination • Speed • Power • Reaction time
Test for Skill related fitness • Zig-zag drill: Agility • Stork test: Balance • Ball test: Coordination • 40/100 meter sprint: Speed • Standing Broad/High Jump: Power • Ruler test: Reaction time
Term to Know Agility The ability to change and control the direction and position of the body while maintaining a constant, rapid motion. Health-Related Fitness vs. Skill-Related Fitness Agility is the component of skill-related fitness that accounts for an athlete’s “quick feet.”
Term to Know Balance The ability to control or stabilize the body while standing or moving. Health-Related Fitness vs. Skill-Related Fitness Balance helps you maintain control while coordinating your movements. Balance in sports depend in large measure on biomechanics.
Term to Know Coordination The ability to use the senses to determine and direct the movement of your limbs and head. Health-Related Fitness vs. Skill-Related Fitness Coordination requires using a combination of different muscle groups at once. Coordination can only be sharpened with practice.
Term to Know Speed The ability to move your body, or parts of it, swiftly. Health-Related Fitness vs. Skill-Related Fitness Speed is largely determined by heredity, speed can be increased. Building muscular strength can lead to gains in speed. Most limited by Heredity!
Term to Know Power The ability to move the body parts swiftly while simultaneously applying the maximum force of your muscles. Health-Related Fitness vs. Skill-Related Fitness Power is a function of both speed and muscular strength. Proper biomechanics can also enhance power by improving your balance, coordination, and speed.
Term to Know Reaction time The ability to react or respond quickly to what you hear, see, or feel. Health-Related Fitness vs. Skill-Related Fitness The quicker your response, the better your reaction time.
Health-Related Fitness, Skill-Related Fitness, and You Agility, coordination, and power are skill-related components that can be improved through practice. Health-related fitness can be improved by participating in many physical activities that are not necessarily related to sports or games.
Term to Know Exercise prescription This is a breakdown of how often you need to work, how hard, the length of time per session, and the type of activity or exercise performed. Your Exercise Prescription Exercise prescription is the “dose” of exercise you need to maintain a high level of fitness. The factors of an exercise prescription are referred to as FITT.
Your Exercise Prescription F requency: how often you work. I ntesity: how hard you work. T ime: the length of time, or duration, that you work. T ype: the specific type or mode of activity you choose.
Term to Know The overload principle In order to improve your level of fitness, you must increase the amount of regular activity or exercise that you normally do. Your Exercise Prescription Exercise prescriptions are governed by the specificity principle, the progression principle, and the overload principle. You will learn about the principles of specificity and progression in Lessons 3 and 4.
Term to Know Frequency Refers to the number of times per week you engage in physical activity or exercise. Your Exercise Prescription These scientific principles are applied to an exercise program by adjusting all the FITT factors in your prescription. The first FITT factor is frequency.
Term to Know Cardiovascular conditioning Exercises or activities that improve the efficiency of the heart, lungs, blood, and blood vessels. Your Exercise Prescription Frequency considerations are: • Your specific fitness goals. One basic goal should be cardiovascular conditioning • Your current level of fitness. • Other priorities and responsibilities in your daily life.
Term to Know Intensity The difficulty or exertion level of your physical activity or exercise. Your Exercise Prescription The second FITT factor is intensity.
Term to Know Heart rate The number of times your heart beats a minute. Your Exercise Prescription For cardiovascular conditioning, a reliable measure of intensity is a percentage of your maximum heart rate.
Term to Know Perceived exertion A measure of how hard you feel you are working during physical activity or exercise. Your Exercise Prescription Another method of determining intensity is using perceived exertion or Ratings of Perceived Exertion (RPE). RPE are based on your awareness of specific body cues; such as how hard you are breathing, your heart rate, or body temperature.
Term to Know Talk test A measure of your ability to carry on a conversation while engaged in physical activity or exercise. Your Exercise Prescription Another method for monitoring your intensity is the talk test.
Your Exercise Prescription For weight training, a useful gauge of intensity is a percentage of your maximum strength. Maximum strength is a measure of how much weight you can lift one time for a given exercise.
Term to Know Time The duration of a single workout, usually measured in minutes or hours. Your Exercise Prescription The third FITT factor is time. • A workout that is too brief may result in limited progress. • A workout that is too long will increase your risk for injuries.
Term to Know Type The particular type of physical activity or exercise you choose to do. Your Exercise Prescription The fourth FITT factor is type. The choice and type of activity you participate in are up to you.
Your Exercise Prescription The type of activity and the particular activity you do should be guided by these considerations: What you enjoy doing How much time you have for the activity How much money you can afford to spend on needed equipment
Term to Know Specificity principle Overloading a particular component will lead to fitness improvements in that component alone. Specificity and Change To apply the specificity principle effectively, you need to evaluate your personal fitness goals and design a plan that will target specific areas of your fitness.
Term to Know Short-term goals Goals that can be accomplished relatively easily and quickly. Goal Setting Setting goals is essential tothe success of any effort. Some goals are short-term goals.
Term to Know Long-term goals Goals that are more complex and require considerable time and planning. Goal Setting Goals that take longer to achieve are long-term goals.
Goal Setting Recommendations Keep your goals simple, specific, and realistic. List ways that help you reach your goals. Seek help from others who can help you achieve your goals. Be flexible in case you need to reevaluate your progress. Keep records to monitor your progress. Be positive. Avoid being negative about yourself. Reward yourself in a healthy way as you achieve your goals.
Choosing Activities Consider these factors when designing your fitness program: • Where you live • Time and place • Personal safety • Comprehensive planning
Your Journal Should Include Record Keeping • Your goals • The days you exercise • Time, distance, and intensity • Environmental conditions • Different routes you may have taken • Places you exercised • Specific activities or exercises you did • Any injuries • Foods and liquids consumed • Weight loss or gain • Progress
Term to Know Progression principle As your fitness levels increase, so do the factors in your FITT. Progression You have learned about two principles involved in exercise prescription: overload and specificity. In this lesson, you will learn about a third principle: the progression principle.
Term to Know Overuse injury This is a muscular injury that results from overloading your muscles beyond a healthful point. Progression When acquiring any new skill, you start slowly, then progress to more advanced levels. If you increase all the factors in your FITT at once, you risk and overuse injury.
Progression Stages of Personal Fitness Progress Initial Stage Improvement Stage Maintenance Stage
Term to Know Trainability The rate at which an individual’s fitness levels increase during fitness training. Progression These factors affect progression: • Your initial fitness level • Your heredity • The rate at which you overload your body or change your FITT • Your specific goals • Your trainability
Term to Know Training plateau A period of time during training when little, if any, fitness improvement occurs. Progression Trainability is determined, to a large extent, by heredity. Different people train at different rates. Training plateausare a natural part of the training process.
Term to Know Detraining The loss of functional fitness that occurs when one stops fitness conditioning. Progression People experience detraining if they lose the battle of will when a training plateau occurs.
Term to Know Cross-training Varying your exercise or activity routine or type. Progression One measure that can prevent detaining, particularly if you are injured, is cross-training.
Term to Know Overtraining Exercising, or being active to a point where it begins to have negative effects. Progression Overtraining is the leading cause of overuse injuries and burnout.
Terms to Know Fatigue The feeling of being tired all the time. Progression Health problems from overtraining include: • Chronic fatigue • Insomnia • Constant muscle soreness • Rapid weight loss • Loss of appetite • Elevated resting heart rate • Elevated blood pressure • Weakened immune system • In females, absence of menstrual cycles, and possible infertility Insomnia Sleeplessness
Term to Know Restoration Ways in which you can optimize your recovery from physical activity or exercise. Progression The speed of restoration depends on your FITT. If you exercise daily, you will need to recover more quickly than if you worked out every other day.
Progression Factors That Influence Restoration Age Experience Environment Amount of rest Nutrition, including fluids
Components of a Complete Workout There are three components of a complete workout: • A warm-up • The workout itself • A cooldown