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1. Enabling Activities to Review and Update the National Implementation Plan for the Stockholm Convention on Persistent Organic Pollutants 4-5 March 2013, Antalya, Turkey. Inventory of POP-PBDE in the transport sector and minor use sectors. Roland Weber POPs Environmental Consulting,

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Enabling Activities to Review and Update the

National Implementation Plan for the Stockholm Convention

on Persistent Organic Pollutants

4-5 March 2013, Antalya, Turkey

Inventory of POP-PBDE in the transport sector and minor use sectors

Roland Weber

POPs Environmental Consulting,

Ulmenstrasse 3, 73035 Göppingen, Germany

content of pbde inventory guidance
Content of PBDE inventory guidance

Inventory Guidance for POP-BDEs (Section) 1)

Former POP-BDE production and uses (Section 2)

Inventory Steps for POP-BDEs (Section 3)

Inventory of POP-BDEs (Sections 4-7)

Transportation & end-of-life vehicles (Section 5)

Other uses (Section 6)

Electronics (Section 4)


Construction materials



In use


Contaminated sites (Section 7)

Inventory report





Sectors for conducting a POP-PBDE inventory




identification inventory of new pops in the life cycle stages
Identification & Inventory of new POPs in the life cycle stages

POP-PBDE containing articles/materials are identified in the key life cycle stages relevant for inventory

transport sector chapter 5
Transport Sector (Chapter 5)
  • POP-PBDEs in transport:
    • PentaBDE: a major use in flexible PUR foams (automotive seating; head rests; car ceilings, acoustic systems, back-coating of textiles).
    • OctaBDE: Minor use in plastics parts (steering wheels; dashboards; door panels, bumpers).
  • Large material flows of goods and waste:
    • Cars, busses, trucks, trains, planes, ships
  • End-of-life management:
    • Highly relevant material flow: recovery of materials and of managing pollutants.
transport sector
Transport Sector
  • Please Note:The inventory and management of POP-PBDE containing materials in the transport sector should be integrated within the overall inventory and management of end-of-life vehicles (see POP-PBDEs BAT/BEP guidance).
  • Industrial countries:
    • where cars are used for extended period of time Lifespan of approx. 10 to 12 years: most vehicles containing POP-BDEs have partly been treated by the existing waste management or have been exported to developing countries.
  • Developing/transition countries:
    • Likely a large stockpiles for POP-PBDE containing vehicles (used for extended periods until break-down).
data compilation for pop pbde in end of life vehicles elvs
Data compilation for POP- PBDE in End-of-Life Vehicles (ELVs)
  • For which years POP-PBDEs might have been used in transport sector (1975 to 2004) (5.2)
  • Factors for calculating the quantitative amount of POP-PBDEs
    • Amount of POP-PBDEs in individual vehicles (5.3)
    • Number of POP-PBDEs impacted vehicles (5. 3)
    • Regional differences of use of POP-PBDEs in vehicles and factors to account for the regional differences (5.3)

Currently it is not known which vehicles producer have used POP-PBDEs for which years. Also monitoring data of POP-PBDEs in vehicles are non-existing in the public domain and only a few data on POP-PBDEs in residues are available.

The following factors are provided/suggested to estimate the presence of POP-PBDEs in this sector:


SC Guidance formula used for calculating POP-PBDE inventory in vehicles


  • Number of vehiclescategory is the number of vehicles (manufactured 1975-2004) present in a category (car, bus or truck) calculated for the different life cycle stages.
  • Amount POP-PBDEscategory is the amount of POP-PBDEs in a individual car, truck or bus treated with POP-PBDEs
  • Fregional The regional factor of estimated percentage of POP-PBDE impacted vehicles produced in a region (1975s to 2004)

The following basic formula from the POP-PBDE Inventory Guidance is used to calculate the POP-PBDEs content of vehicles for the different categories (cars/trucks or busses) in the live cycle stages:

Amount of POP-PBDEs (Vehicle category) =

Number of vehiclescategory (manufactured 1975 to 2004) x amount POP-PBDEscategory x Fregional


Transport Sector –

Inventory in the life cycle

For data compilation of POP-PBDEs in the transport sector it is useful to inventory the vehicles in the relevant life cycle stages.


Initial assessment and preliminary inventory

An aim of the initial assessment is to find out what inventory data on the transport sector are already available in a country.

Available data on the transport sector may be gathered from national and international statistics, and statistics of related industrial associations (importers of vehicles, end-of-life treatment) and ministries with relevant information.

Such data might be sufficient for a preliminary inventory.

(Statistics or import data from other countries in the region can be used for approximate estimates for the inventory where there are few national data available. Not needed for Turkey)


Initial assessment and preliminary inventory

Data to be gathered for the initial assessment include:

  • Number of registered vehicles (cars, buses and trucks) in use and on sale in the country, including:
    • Year of manufacture (for estimating the share of vehicles manufactured between 1975 to 2004);
    • Approximate percentage distribution of the regions from which the vehicles were imported;

If this information is not available, it might be estimated by extrapolation of available statistical data and expert judgment.

  • Numbers of imported (and exported) vehicles and vehicles produced in the country including available data from:
    • International statistics on the trade of vehicles;
    • National import (and export) statistics, and import statistics from customs and port authorities;
    • Information from importers (and exporter) or retailers.

Initial assessment and preliminary inventory

Data to be gathered for the initial assessment include:

  • Numbers of vehicles having reached their end-of-life stage in the past (from 1980) until the inventory year (considering the proportion produced between 1975 and 2004):
    • This information could be derived from deregistration of vehicles, statistics compiled on end-of-life vehicles or by the average (estimated) lifespan.
  • Available information on current & past waste management practices of end-of-life vehicles in the country:

This information needs to be compiled in respect to the polymer fraction.

  • Recycling practices of polymers from end-of-life treatment of cars/vehicles:

This information should include the plastics (dashboard, bumpers etc.) and PUR foams (seats and head/arm rest etc.).

data compilation of pop pbde in vehicles cars busses trucks in life cycle stages
Data compilation of POP-PBDE in Vehicles (cars, busses, trucks) in life cycle stages

Amount of POP-PBDEs in vehicle (produced 1975 to 2004 ).

in a) import b) current use c) ELV d) deposited

(go to Excel)

pop pbdes inventory in the life cycle of vehicles
POP-PBDEs Inventory in the Life Cycle of Vehicles
  • Summary of the inventory of POP-PBDE homologues present in the life cycle stages of vehicles.

* in the respective inventory year

data compilation of recycling of polymers from end of life vehicles elvs
Data compilation of recycling of polymers from End-of-Life Vehicles (ELVs)

Most of the polymer fraction from ELVs are disposed in landfills/dumps or incinerated and are not recycled.

Recycling of PUR foam and plastic from ELVs might be performed by specialized companies or by the informal sector. Such operations are assessed & inventoried.

Extent of recycling/separation is quantified (inventory), and technologies and approaches used can be reviewed by referring to the POP-PBDEs BAT/BEP guideline.

pbde inventory in other former uses
PBDE inventory in other (former) uses

Other uses of POP-PBDEs (furniture, mattresses, textiles, construction materials, rubber, and drilling operation) are thought to be of minor relevance for most countries due to:

  • Relative low overall use volumes of POP-PBDEs in most of these other application (except furniture for which a large share of c-PentaBDEs was used in PUR foam);
  • Lack of flammability standards in most countries for these use areas (only a few countries had flammability standards e.g. for furniture in US and UK);
  • Limited export of such flame retarded second hand articles from countries with flammability standards and related stocks (e.g. export of furniture from US or UK).

PBDE inventory in other (former) uses

  • Furniture/mattresses: Countries with certain flammability standards or imports from these countries.
  • Textile:Limited volume of c-PentaBDE has been used in textiles. Considering that Hexabromocyclododecane (HBCDD) is used in textile the sector will become relevant.
  • Construction (rigid PUR foam): Minor use of c-PentaBDE. For the inventory construction companies could be interviewed on former use of POP-PBDEs in rigid PUR foam. (Considering that the main use of HBCDD is in insulation (XPS and EPS) the sector will become more POPs relevant.
  • If countries consider establishing an inventory for some of these uses it is advised to seek data on % of impacted materials in the region or apply Bromine screening.

Life cycle of POP-PBDEs & contaminated sites

Emission Sources





Thermal (e.g. bad incineration,

metal industry,

recycling accidential fires)



PBDE Production



Food ingestion



(landfills, contaminated

sites, stockpilessludges, soils, sediments)








(e.g. plastic EEE, PUF, textiles)


(e.g. Electronics, furniture, cars, plain, train, textiles, mattresses etc.)


(dust, air)

Fish &



Recycled Products

potentially pop pbde contaminated sites
Potentially POP-PBDE Contaminated Sites

Routes of POP-PBDEs contamination


Industrial Pollution


Domestic Sources



Wastewater Treatment Plant

Surface water

Landfill & non-recycledwaste



POP-PBDEs production sites (only in a few countries)

(Former) Application of POP-PBDEs in industries. Production sites of flame retarded


polyurethane foam



End-of-life treatment of PBDE containing materials

Potentially POP-PBDE Contaminated Sites

contaminated site inventory information
Contaminated Site Inventory Information
  • Types/quantities of POP-PBDE-containing materials disposed
  • The names and addresses of those entities responsible for disposal of POP-PBDE-containing materials
  • Details of the treatment of waste before disposal
  • Records of site contamination
  • Information on the monitoring of contaminated sites
  • Records of on-going monitoring and research.

Questions ?


Material flow analysis of polyurethane foam and POP-PBDE in vehicles

  • For compiling the data in a visualized form and to gain an overview on the life cycle of materials containing POP-PBDEs in the transport sector, a material flow analysis (MFA) of impacted materials and a substance flow analysis (SFA) of the POP-PBDEs was performed.
  • A contact to Vienna University (Prof. Brunner) was established for support of using the free software STAN (subSTance flow Analysis) for the visualisation of the material/substance flows.
  • Material/substance flow analysis is the base for establishing live cycle assessments!

Material flow and stocks of polyurethane foam in vehicles in Nigeria (1980 - 2010)

Flows for 1980 to 2010 and for the stocks (in use & landfill/dump) for 2010

( )


Substance flows and stocks of POP-PBDE in transport sector Nigeria (1980 to 2010)

Flows for 1980 to 2010 and for the stocks (in use & landfill/dump) for 2010

( )

  • Approximately 270 tonnes of c-PentaBDE were contained in vehicles registered in 1980-2010, comprising of 141 tonnes in cars, 127 tonnes in buses and 2 tonnes in trucks.
  • The majority of which(213 tones) is in current use or stockpiled vehicles while approximately 41 tones of POP-PBDE has already been disposed to dumpsitesbetween 1980 to 2010.