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Germany (1871) 1919-1939. Created a republic under a president, chancellor, and the Reichstag (legislature) Signed the unpopular Treaty of Versailles (Germany takes total guilt for WW1) which made the Weimar government even less popular

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germany 1871 1919 1939

Germany (1871) 1919-1939

  • Created a republic under a president, chancellor, and the Reichstag (legislature)
  • Signed the unpopular Treaty of Versailles (Germany takes total guilt for WW1) which made the Weimar government even less popular
  • Allies should have forced Kaiser to sign treaty instead

Weimar Republic-replaced WW1 imperial government in Germany(1919-1939), when Kaiser fled to Holland after WW1

The Allies force Germany to become a democracy against their will.

Germans liked having one strong leader, like the Kaiser, and this may have helped lead to Hitler’s rise (dictator)

Kaiser and flag of Holland

slide2

German Reichstag, 1926

Flags of Weimer Republic

Spartacist Revoltin Berlin:

  • Attempted communist takeover Jan. 1919
  • Communists revolt and declare Soviet Republic of Bavaria in April of 1919
  • Defeated in May by the FreiKorps(Free Corps)-Anti-communist, ex-soldiers, and socialist ringleaders, that were killed while “trying to escape”
  • FreiKorpstook over Berlin briefly in March 1920 (KappPutsch- during German Revolution right wing monarchists tried to overthrow Weimar government)
  • FreiKorpsdisbanded in1921
slide3

Nazi party badge featuring the swastika

Spartacists in revolt and a FreiKorps soldier

  • Nazi (National Socialist German Worker’s Party) (NSDAP) formed 1920-
  • Adoptedswastikaas symbol of the party, displayed on Nazi party badges (reversed its direction to work black magic)
slide4

In 1920 SA, Sturm Abteilung, Storm Troopers, Brownshirts, fought communists in the streets, paramilitary organization

  • The Nazi party purchased the VolkischerBeobachter(People’s Observer) as official party paper in 1920
  • The Nazi’s were led by Adolph Hitler from 1921, sent to spy on them then asked to join (he became member #55)

VolkischerBeobachter newspaper copy

  • Leader of SA, Ernst Roehm

Brown shirt uniform

slide5

The Horst Wessel song, or Die Fahnehoch (Raise High the Flag) was named for its author Horst Wessel, an SA man who was supposedly killed by communists in a fight in his room in Berlin

  • Glorified as a martyr to the Nazi cause, and his song became the official Nazi anthem
  • He joined the Nazi party in 1926
  • It became Nazi Germany’s co-National Anthem
  • Horst Wessel (1907-1930)

Horst Wessel

Adolf Hitler-

  • Was an Austrian born frustrated art student – he was denied entry into an art school in Vienna
  • Enlisted in German Army, served during WW1, wounded in leg in 1916, gassed 1918, awarded Iron Cross by a Jewish 1st Lt. for bravery, but never promoted
  • Hitler develops loud oratory style from addressing noisy beer halls

Austria’s flag

Adolf Hitler

Iron Cross

the horst wessel lied song
The Horst Wessel Lied (Song)

Flag high, ranks closed    The S.A. marches with silent solid steps.    Comrades shot by the red front and reaction    march in spirit with us in our ranks.    The street free for the brown battalions,    The Street free for the Storm Troopers.    Millions, full of hope, look up at the swastika;    the day breaks for freedom and for bread.    For the last time the call will now be blown;    for the struggle now we all stand ready.    Soon will fly Hitler-flags over every street;    Slavery will last only a short time longer.    Flag high, ranks closed    The S.A. marches with silent solid steps.    Comrades shot by the red front and reaction    march in spirit with us in our ranks.

post ww1 germany seeds of discontent
Post WW1 Germany- Seeds of Discontent

“Stab in the Back Theory”—belief that Germany was winning the war but that the army was betrayed by traitorous non-Germans (i. e. Jews) at home

  • War reparations (money paid for damages from WWI) totaling 132 billion gold marks were forced on Germany by The Treaty of Versailles
  • 1923, France and Belgium invade the Ruhr when coal reparations not sent
  • Germany prints more money to pay reparations, causes inflation of 300 million %
  • 4 marks = $1 in 1919, 4.2 trillion marks = $1 in early, 1923
  • People hoarded intrinsically valuable coins
  • Ran out of paper so printed more 0’s on old bills, did the same with postage stamps
  • Egg = 1 million marks, cold beer = 3 million marks, newspaper = 100 billion marks, money cheaper to burn than firewood
  • People went shopping with wheelbarrows, paid several times a day to buy merchandise which would hold its value during the work day
  • Nazis blamed inflation on Jewish sabotage
  • U.S. loans improve economy from 1924-1929 (Depression)

DerDolchstoss (Stab in the Back)

A wheel barrow of inflated currency

beer hall putsch november 8 9 1923
Beer Hall PutschNovember 8-9, 1923
  • A failed attempt by Hitler and the Nazis to try and overthrow the Bavarian government and take over all of Germany
  • Hitler joined by respectable Erich von Ludendorff
  • Plot fails and Hitler jailed, sentenced to 5 years, only served 9 months
  • 16 Martyrs

Some of Hitler’s storm troopers mingle outside the beer hall (Nov. 9, 1923) & Hitler at the time of the Putsch

Hofbrauhaus the famous beerhall; where Hitler makes his first public speech and became leader of the NAZI Party

Enrich Ludendorff

slide9

Hitler in the crowd (Left) celebrating the outbreak of war in the Odeonsplatz, in front of the Feldherrenhalle war memorial. It was in this same square that the Beer Hall Putsch ended in a bloody melee in November 1923. (Right) Hitler was standing roughly on the circular decoration in the square, in front of the stone lion which forms part of the front of the Feldherrenhalle.

Defendants in the Beer Hall Putsch trial. Ludendorff is fifth from the left, with Hitler to the right. Ernst Röhmis to the right and in front of Hitler. Note that only two of the defendants, Hitler and Frick, were dressed in civilian clothing.

slide10

The Blutfahne (Blood flag)-

  • SA flag stained with blood of martyrs used to consecrate subsequent flags
  • One guy died on top of the flag and bled all over it when shot by Munich police
  • Nazi party outlawed
  • Fellow prisoners tired of Hitler’s speeches, so they convince him to write his memoirs

Hitler with Blutfahne flag

Nov. 9, 1935: the 16 NSDAP members killed during the Beer Hall Putsch brought from their graves and buried at the Ehrentempel

Hitler in prison following the Beer Hall Putsch

slide12

Social Darwinism, survival of the fittest for humans

  • Lebensraum(living space to the East and South of Germany ie. Poland, Czec, Austria) Hitler wants to expand to east and conquer inferior peoples like U.S. did in the West - Concentration camps based on Indian Reservations
  • Aryans, master race (blond, blue eyed) Germans.
  • Children taught these characteristics in school, had been corrupted by interbreeding, Hitler wanted to take control of evolution and create a master race
  • (Believed there was an underground race of supermen “The Old Ones” who periodically surfaced to interbreed with humans, he wanted his race to be chosen.)
  • Blamed Jews for loss of WWI, reparations, post war inflation, depression, communism
  • The Big Lie (propaganda technique)- easier to believe a big lie that a little lie
  • Later required in every household to get a marriage certificate
  • Wrote an untitled sequel in 1928 which was never published which dealt with the inevitable war with America, which predicted a final war between Greater Germany and Britain v. the U.S. in 1980
  • Believed that War should be soon because America was attracting the best, bravest Germans as immigrants, Americans praised for eugenics and racial segregation, but Hitler felt we were ruled by Jews which made us dangerous
  • Hitler released from prison in1925, convinced Bavaria to legalize Nazis by saying he would try to get elected instead of overthrowing the government

Bavaria’s flag

slide13
ss
  • In 1925 Hitler creates SS, Schutzstaffel, (Protective Squad) as his personal bodyguards, led by former chicken farmer Heinrich Himmler(ideolized Teutonic rural life), into the occult, runes (magical symbols and spells)
  • Based on Teutonic Knights (100 B.C), which used to protect Germany from enemies to the east

SS logo

Hitler after his release from Landsberg

SS ring

Teutonic Knights

Heinrich Himmler

slide14

SS Facts Continued:

  • Members must prove no Jewish ancestors back to 1750, too difficult so exceptions made for WWI veterans
  • Later ran concentration camps
  • Later divided into 3 branches: Allgemeine SS, general administrative, Waffen SS (armed SS, fought as part of armed forces(elite), Totenkopfverbande (Death’s Head Organization) Started as concentration camp guards, later made military, replaced by Allgemeine SS

Teutonic Knights

Far left to Right:

Allegemeine SS, WaffenSS,Totenkopfverbande

slide15

In 1928, Joseph Goebbelsbecomes the Minister of Public Enlightenment and Propaganda, 5’, 100 lbs, club foot or other deformity of his right foot

  • Propaganda everywhere, weather reports call good weather “Hitler Weather”
  • Wife Magda’s stepfather was Jewish, presumably died in concentration camp
  • Nazi torchlight rallies

Above: Joseph Goebbels Left: Nazi torch rallies

slide16

Hitler copies many poses and gestures from a famous German hypnotist from 1920’sNazi salute- SiegHeil“Hail Victory”, “Heil Hitler” - becomes standard greeting

slide17

Archeological evidence sought of Aryans, evidence planted by Ahnenerbe (Ancestor Inheritance)

  • Ahnenerbe also looted 140,000 books on witchcraft from all over Europe
  • Nazis collected religious artifacts including the Spear of Destiny, reputedly the spear Longinus used to pierce Jesus’ side, in Museum in Austria, supposedly made owner invincible
  • Hitler used astrology to guide his important decisions

“They Salute with Both Hands Now” by David Low, 1934

Spear of Destiny

Ahnenerbe SS

slide19

The obese Herman Goering

The Blue Max

Herman Goering-

WWI flying ace, 22 kills, earned Pour le Merite (Blue Max), in charge of the Luftwaffe (German Air Force), wounded in Beer Hall Putsch becomes addicted to morphine

Luftvaffe decal on helmet

slide20

Rise of the Nazi Party

  • 1929 Stock Market crash ends U.S. loans, German economy tanks, Nazis promise to end Depression woes
  • By 1930, Nazis were second largest party in the Reichstag (2nd to Social Democrats)
  • 25 February 1932 Hitler becomes a German citizen
  • Feb 1932 Hitler lost presidency to WWI hero Paul von Hindenburg, Depression toppled his government
  • January 30, 1933 German politicians made Hitler chancellor thinking they could control him, had power to dismiss him until Hindenburg died

von Hindenburg swearing Hitler into chancellor’s office

von Hindenburg and Hitler

slide21

Ceremony celebrating Hitler as the new Chancellor of Germany in 1933 (Photo credits: USHMM Photo Archives and he History Place)Adolf Hitler and Hermann Göringgreet the participants in the parade as they pass beneath the window of Hitler's new office. Below -- A view of the parade passing

reichstag fire
Reichstag Fire
  • February 27, 1933
  • Possibly set by Nazis, blamed on Dutch communist Marinus van derLubbe, who was beheaded by guillotine
  • Nazis claimed it was part of communist takeover plot, used as excuse to end civil liberties, 4000 communists arrested, communists expelled from Reichstag, freedoms of speech, press and assembly ended, government can open mail and search homes

Marinus van derLubbe

Plenary Hall- after the fire

dachau
Dachau
  • Becomes first concentration camp March 20, 1933
  • Started as political enemies, later Jews, gypsies, habitual criminals, prostitutes, Freemasons (Hitler said this secret fraternal organization served the Jews, said all men are equal, Nazis blamed them for helping lose WWI), Jehovah’s Witnesses (refused Nazi salute, would not vote or serve in army), homosexuals, crippled and handicapped

Sign means “Work brings freedom”

slide24

Each prisoner at the concentration camp got a cloth insignia, Jews-yellow star of David marked “Jude”, male homosexuals and pedophiles- pink triangle, Jehovah’s Witnesses-purple triangle, political prisoners (anarchists, freemasons) -red triangle, asocial (alcoholic, mentally retarded, prostitute, chronically lazy)-black triangle, Gypsie– first black, then brown, repeat offending criminals-green, race defiler – yellow over a black triangle

“Jew”

gestapo
Gestapo
  • 26 April 1933 Goering creates Gestapo, secret police under ReinhardHeydrich, later joined to SS, not responsible to law or courts
  • People’s Court tries political criminals, only appeal of verdict was to Hitler
  • April 1, 1933 Boycott of Jewish goods
  • Enabling Act May 2, 1933 Hitler voted unlimited power to deal with threat, dictatorship

ReinhardHeydrich and the Gestapo Flag

german labor front
German Labor Front
  • May 2, 1933 labor unions replaced by Nazi equivalent, the German Labor Front (wages set)
  • Vacations given cheaply to workers, Kraft durchfreude “Strength through Joy” program, mandatory payroll deductions
  • Public works programs end unemployment, 6 million in 1933, Zero in 1939
  • 18 year-old males required to serve for 6 months, marches to work, lived in barracks, physical labor prepares them for military service
  • Autobahn, military route of invasion, built without machinery, needed more labor
  • Rearmament declared March 16, 1935, 2 years compulsory service for all young men, full employment by 1937. Confiscation of Jewish property makes economy seem healthier

GLF badge

slide27

Volkswagen, Ferdinand Porsche, People’s car, prepaid, money used to rearm, cars not produced until 1946, factories produced military vehicles instead

This poster links the German Labor Front (the DAF) to World War I soldiers. Just as soldiers were comrades regardless of their standing in civil life so too all German workers are comrades in the DAF, regardless of whether they were white or blue collar.

Ferdinand Porsche aided in the construction of this early VW Beetle prototype

slide28

Hitler orders manufacturing of People’s Radioto insure access to propaganda

The Volksempfaenger, or People’s Radio

The text translates: "All Germany hears theFührer on the People's Receiver." The Nazis, eager to encourage radio listenership, developed an inexpensive radio receiver to make it possible for as many as possible to hear Nazi propaganda.

Television was operational in Nazi Germany since before the 1936 Berlin Olympics

book burning
Book Burning
  • May 10, 1933 University book burning, Jews -- Einstein, Freud, Marx, Bible; Disabled --Helen Keller; Socialists -- Jack London, Ernest Hemingway, Sinclair Lewis, H. G. Wells
  • Only Germans were allowed to publish in German, Jews only in Hebrew
  • Erich Maria Remarque’s sister, Elfriede, was beheaded with an axe for being his sister 1943. He was the author of All Quiet on the Western Front
  • Nazis released rats into theaters when movie based on his book showed in Germany in 1930

Joseph Goebbels, German propaganda minister speaking at book burning

Book Burning

slide30

Nazi students and SA unloading "un-German" books as fuel for a book burning on May 10, 1933 in Berlin, Germany. The SA (Sturmabteilung or "Stormtroopers") was the Nazi paramilitary organization under Ernst Röhm. The banner on the back of the truck states, "German students march against the un-German spirit."

Held in Berlin on May 10, 1933, 1000’s of titles were burned on a large pyre. These volumes were collected, stacked and lit a fire by the Nationalist German Students Organization.

slide31

Site of Nazi Book Burning; May 10, 1933 - Bebelplatz

The book burning memorial, in the center of Bebelplatz (a 'platz' in Berlin is like a Square in NYC). It's in front of Humboldt University, the distinguished school that produced Einstein, whose thousands of books were burned by the Nazis. The memorial is simply an empty bookshelf, underground, with an inscription that warns, approximately, "What starts with burning books always ends with burning people."

slide32

Foreign Minister Konstantin von Neurath Justifies Germany’s Withdrawal from the League of Nations in Front of the International Press (October 16, 1933)

Sculpture of German writers in the platz today

Timeline of Event s:

  • June 1933 suppressed monarchist
  • June-July 1933 outlawed all political parties except Nazis,
  • Only remaining opposition to Hitler is within his own party,
  • Freedom of the press ended, labor unions illegal
  • October 1933 Germany withdraws from League of Nations
  • 1933-37 Sterilization of 200,000 young people with genetic diseases, mixed African-Germans
slide33

"This person suffering from hereditary defects costs the community 60,000 Reichsmark during his lifetime. Fellow German, that is your money, too."

Euthanasia(mercy killing) of 90,000 mentally and chronically ill “useless eaters”

  • 30 centers built across Germany, gas chambers disguised as showers for 1st time, lethal injection, technology later used in concentration camps
  • Bodies of victims cremated and sent home, claimed deaths were due to natural causes
  • Catholic bishop gave a speech against the program in August 1941, Nazis beheaded three priests who distributed the sermon but stopped program three weeks later
night of the long knives
Night of the Long Knives
  • June 30, 1934
  • Purge of SA (represents lower classes), resented Hitler’s contacts with military and business
  • SA reaches 3 million members, Roehm has been saying he will replace the army, revolution must continue, made the wealthy classes and the army nervous
  • Roehm found in bed with his chauffer by the SS, SA leaders purged to make way for more middle class support for the Nazis
  • Hitler no longer needed the SA after he was in power

“Will the audience kindly keep their seats”

slide35

August 2, 1934 Hindenburg dies, Chancellor and President combined into “Der Fuehrer” the leader (HITLER)

  • Third Reich proclaimed, Holy Roman 1st, 1870-1918 2nd
  • Hitler wants to create a German nation, supposed to last 1000 years

State Funeral of Paul von Hindenburg Tannenberg War Memorial; August 7, 1933

Reich President Paul von Hindenburg lying instate on SchloßNeudeck

slide36

NAZI EDUCATION

  • Picture of Hitler in every classroom, non-Nazis removed from teaching positions
  • Education focuses on physical fitness, boxing required for boys
  • Rewrote history, Jews and communists blamed for loss of WWI, Jews blamed for inflation, Hitler credited with rebuilding Germany
  • Biology taught racism, geography taught about land taken from Germany in 1919, need for lebensraum “living space”, science taught shooting, aviation, bridge building, math story problems often used Nazi propaganda about bombing Jews in Warsaw or how much it cost to care for the mentally ill
  • 3 special schools built for ardent Nazi children (Ordensburg) where boys participated in war games with live ammunition

(Ordensburg were originally castles build by crusading German knights)

Ordensburg Castle

education continued
Education Continued..
  • Girls and boys segregated
  • University degrees offered in racial science
  • Religious schools banned 1936, religious courses became optional in 1937
  • 1937 Teachers required to defend Nazi doctrine
  • Children’s literature DerGiftpilz, 1938 (the Poison Mushroom) The Poodle-Pug-Dachshund-Pinscher, anti-mixing of races, Don’t Trust a Fox in a Green Meadow or the Word of a Jew
slide38

A lebensborn home

  • Motherhood: should be the goal of all women according to the Third Reich
  • Mutterkreuz(Mother’s Cross)medal to encourage Aryan population growth , Bronze 5 kids, Silver 7+, Gold 9+, awarded on Hitler’s Mother’s birthday in August and on Mothering Sunday in May
  • Married couples get interest free loans, ¼ paid off for each kid, payments triple if woman takes a job
  • Lebensborn, 1935, later spread to occupied territories, homes available to mothers of racially fit children, run by SS
  • Abortion illegal among Aryans
  • Infertile wives can be divorced, women with infertile husbands can have other’s children

Mother’s Cross

slide39

Hanna Reitsch, note the pilot’s wings

Hanna Reitsch, fanatical Nazi test pilot, an exception to the rule

slide40

Nuremberg Laws– Anti-Semitic laws

  • First issued September 15, 1935 and amended from time to time
  • “Law for the Protection of German Blood and Honor”
  • Jews excluded from public office, citizenship revoked, cannot attend German schools, no marriage or procreation with Aryans, Jews had to register with the state, If names are not on list of approved Jewish names -- Jewish men must add “Israel” to names; Woman add “Sara”, Jews had to sell their businesses, Jews had to wear Yellow stars of David marked “Jude”(German for Jew)
  • Jews cannot have phones, ride public transportation, employ German servants, wear medals or other decorations, or fly the German flag (but can fly the Jewish flag)
  • Jews banned from public schools, theaters, cinemas, resorts and other public places (seats reserved for Jews painted yellow)
  • The next steps were to send Jews to live in ghettos, then to the concentration camps

Hitler during the session of the Reichstag, when the “Nuremberg Laws” were adopted

slide41

DerVölkischeBeobachter heralds the Nuremberg Laws, September 1935

"I am the greatest pig intown - I have affairs with Jews only." This scene, organized for the press in Hamburg in 1935, appeared in all German newspapers. The man's sign says: "I only take German girls to my room." The Nuremberg laws of 1935 criminalized sexual relations between Jews and "Aryans."

berlin memorial laws
Berlin Memorial Laws:
  • Jewish judges placed on permanent "leave". 3/13/33
  • Jewish lawyers/notaries can no longer practice in Berlin. 3/18/33
  • Jewish doctors not to be reimbursed for treating patients. 3/31/33
  • Jewish teachers to be discharged. 4/1/33
  • Jewish civil servants discharged from their jobs. 4/7/33
  • Jews expelled from sports clubs. 4/25/33
  • A film is German only if made by citizens of German heritage. 6/28/33
  • Jews expelled from German Chess Union. 7/19/33
  • Jews expelled from choir clubs. 8/16/33
  • Jews not allowed to use the beach in Wannsee (Wannsee: lake in Berlin suburb). 8/22/33
  • All schools to teach racial science. 9/13/33
  • Jews cannot belong to German Automobile Club. 10/1/33
  • Jewish actors and actresses prohibited from performing. 3/5/34
  • Jewish art dealers must close shop. 1935
  • Jewish writers no longer allowed to write. March 1935
  • Jewish musicians prohibited from performing. 3/31/35
  • Hiking of Jewish youth groups consisting of more than twenty persons prohibited. 7/10/35
  • Marriages between citizens of German blood and Jews punished with prison. Marriages contracted despite this are void. 9/15/35
  • Anti-Jewish signs removed in Berlin during Olympics. 1936
  • To prevent creating a bad impression on foreign visitors, signs with extreme anti-Jewish contents are to be removed. Signs with "Jews not wanted here" are sufficient. 1/29/36
  • The conversion from Judaism to Christianity has no bearing on race--based on birth one was still considered a Jew. 4/10/36
  • Journalists to prove Aryan ancestry going back to 1800. 4/15/36
  • Jews were not allowed to graduate. 4/15/37
slide43

Postal clerks married to Jewish women must leave job. 6/18/37

  • Aryan and non-Aryan children can't play together. 1938
  • Jews can no longer be members of German Red Cross. 1/1/38
  • Night of Shattered Glass" (Kristallnacht). Thousands of Jews rounded up and taken to concentration camps. 1938
  • Only racial comrades may engage in gardening. 3/22/38
  • Jews to declare all assets. 4/26/38
  • Jewish doctors can no longer practice. 7/25/38
  • Streets with Jewish names to be renamed. 7/27/38
  • Jews to add middle name of "Sarah" or "Israel". 8/17/38
  • Passports of Jews to be stamped with a "J". 10/5/38
  • Jews cannot be self employed in any trade. 11/12/38
  • Jews not allowed to be tradesmen. 11/12/38
  • Jews not allowed to go to movies, operas and concerts. 11/12/38
  • Jewish employees may be discharged without notice or benefits. 11/12/38
  • Jewish children no longer allowed to attend public schools. 11/15/38
  • Jews not allowed to use swimming pools. 12/3/38
  • Jews to hand in drivers licenses. 12/3/38
  • Jewish women cannot become midwives. 12/21/38
  • Certain parts of Berlin off-limits to Jews. 12/31/38
  • Jewish publishers and Jewish book dealers to close by end of 1938.
  • In Bavarian Square Jews only allowed to sit on benches marked with yellow color. 1939
  • Jews not allowed to take jewelry or other valuables when emigrating. 1/16/39
  • Dentists, dental technicians, pharmacists, nurses can no longer practice their professions. 1/17/39
  • Jewish veterinarians prohibited from practicing. 1/17/39
  • Jews to turn in gold, silver, platinum, pearls. 2/21/39
slide44

Jewish organizations responsible for cleaning debris of synagogues. They are not to be rebuilt. 3/24/39

  • Jews can be thrown out of their homes without notice and without compensation and placed in appointed "Jew homes". 4/30/39
  • Jew's last will and testaments are no longer valid. 7/27/39
  • Jews not allowed to leave their home after 8:00 pm; 9:00 pm in summer. 9/1/39
  • Jews to turn in radios. 9/23/39
  • Jews not eligible for clothing rations. January 1940
  • Jews allowed to shop for food between 4 pm and 5 pm only. 7/4/40
  • Jews no longer allowed to request telephone hookup. 7/29/40
  • All Jews to perform forced labor. 3/4/41
  • Jews not to obtain soap or shaving cream with ration cards. 6/26/41
  • Jews not allowed to use public libraries. 8/2/41
  • Jews over six years of age to wear yellow star with word "Jew". 9/1/41
  • Jews may use public transport only to go to work. 9/13/41
  • Jews need police approval to leave the neighborhoods in which they reside. 9/18/41
  • Jews not allowed to use public transportation, if crowded. They are only permitted to sit down when none of the other passengers are standing. 9/18/41
  • First mass deportation of Berlin Jews. 10/18/41
  • Jews no longer allowed emigrating. 10/23/41
  • Jews not allowed to use public telephone. 12/21/41
  • Compelled to turn in wool and furs. January 1942
  • Bakeries and candy stores off-limits to Jews. 2/14/42
  • Jews not allowed to purchase newspapers or magazines. 2/17/42
  • Jewish children to make use of public transportation only where school is more than 5 km from home. 3/24/42
  • Jews allowed to use public transportation only when job is more than 7 km from home. 3/24/42
  • Jewish home must display "Jewish Star". 3/26/42
  • Jews not allowed to have pets. 5/15/42
  • Jews not allowed to use ration cards to obtain cigarettes or cigars. 6/11/42
  • Jews have to turn in electrical appliances, bicycles, typewriters, and records. 6/12/42
and finally some more laws
And Finally Some More Laws…
  • Jews not allowed to go to school. 6/20/42
  • Jews not to obtain eggs with their ration cards. 6/22/42
  • Jews not allowed to make use of ticket dispensers for public transportation. 6/26/42
  • No milk. 7/10/42
  • First direct deportation to Auschwitz. 7/11/42
  • Jews cannot testify in court against Germans. 8/7/42
  • Supplying Jews with meat, meat products prohibited. 9/18/42
  • Jews not allowed to buy books. 10/9/42
  • Organized arrests of Jews in workplaces for deportation. 3/26/43
  • Official acts documenting anti-Jewish actions are to be destroyed. 2/16/45
1936 berlin olympics
1936 Berlin Olympics
  • Soviets do not attend
  • Reich Sports Office applies Nazi policy to athletics, Jews excluded from professional and amateur sports
  • Reich Sports Office organizes Berlin Olympics
  • Hindenburgzeppelin painted with swastikas on tail, and Olympic Rings

Nazi Art

  • Reich Culture Chambers (7) Press, Fine Arts, Music, Theater, Film, Literature, Radio
  • Bauhaus architecture school closed in 1933 (modernist, utilitarian), many artists fled to U.S.
  • Albert Speer, Hitler’s architect, built on huge scale, wanted to replace Berlin with ‘Germania’, the capital of the world

Architect’s impression of Germania; the dome is so large it would create its own weather and could rain indoors

slide47

Albert Speer, in charge of Germania

Exhibition of Degenerate Art opened 19 July 1937 (Bolshevik or Jewish Art)

Top Right – an example of National Socialist Realism

Bottom – an example from the Nazi Degenerate art show superimposing modern art and photos of handicapped people

slide48

Modern art = Jewish plot to demoralize Gentiles

  • Art work displayed next to pictures of deformed and retarded persons
  • Last show before destruction or sale for Reich
  • Similar show held for Degenerate Music 1938
  • Works of Jewish composer Mendelssohn banned
  • National Socialist Realism is accepted German art
  • Backlash against excesses in Berlin, homosexuality, drug use, jazz (Duke Ellington’s” Chocolate Kiddies” musical), nude stage shows like Josephine Baker, November gruppe (radicals who wanted to use art to cause revolution), Dadaism, anti-capitalist modern art
  • Literature controlled, All Quiet on the Western Front banned
  • 1934 Fraktur chosen as official German typeface, cursive banned 1941 as being of Jewish origin
propaganda films
Propaganda Films
  • Propaganda Film Triumph of the Will, directed by Leni Riefenstahl
  • Triumph of the Will was commissioned by Hitler in 1934 and directed by Leni Riefenstahl, and covers the events of the Sixth Nuremberg Party Congress. The original intention was to document the early days of the NSDAP, so future generations could look back and see how the Third Reich began.
  • In reality, Triumph of the Will shows historians how the Nazi state drew in the masses through propaganda and also how Adolf Hitler had a unique and terrifying ability to entice crowds to his beliefs by the very power of his words

Scenes from the film

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Poster for The Eternal Jew

  • DerEwige Jude (The Eternal Jew), 1940 portrayed Jews as rats in this propaganda film
  • Nazis set up a service to distribute films in rural areas where no theaters existed
  • 1937 Nazi agents tried to pressure Marlene Dietrich to return to Germany, she refuses
  • Der Grosse Konig, 1942 about Frederick the Great who defeated 3 world powers (Austria, Russia, and France)
  • Kolberg, 1945, city sacrifices itself to avoid being taken by invaders

1937 film, Angel

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February 1938 Hitler purges military of those opposed to invasion of Czechoslovakia, Werner von Blomberg unknowingly married to ex-prostitute and nude model, Werner von Fritsch falsely accused of homosexuality, control is complete

  • Goering engineers coup hoping to take over
  • Anschluss- March 14, 1938 Austria joined to Germany
  • Austria is shown as Ostmark after the Anschluss

1938, Hitler parades in Vienna

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Czech Partition(October 1938)

  • Hitler demanded the Sudetenland (which contained 3 million ethnic Germans)
  • Czechs allied to USSR and France, war seemed imminent
  • British Prime Minister Neville Chamberlain, negotiates with Hitler in Munich September 29,1938

Sudetenland- white area

Chamberlain arrives in Munich for conference (left) & Chamberlain arrives back in England and claims “Peace in Our Times” (pictures above)

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MUNICH CONFERENCE

Mussolini, Hitler, Goering at Munich conference

Lunch with Hitler

(left to right) the British Prime Minister Neville Chamberlain, French Prime Minister Édouard Daladier, Hitler, Mussolini, and Italian Foreign Minister Galeazzo Ciano

Neurath, Premier Daladier,Prime Minister Chamberlain, Ambassador François-Poncet and Weizsäcker at the Munich Conference

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Appeasement= give a bully what he wants so he will leave you alone

  • Chamberlain went home and declared “Peace in Our Time”
  • Czechs and their allies the Soviets were not consulted as British agreed to give Hitler the Sudetenland
  • Hitler pledges he will be satisfied with this, pledges he will never ask for anything else

Hitler during a triumphal tour of the Sudetenland following the Munich agreement of September 1938. The agreement ceded the largely German-speaking Sudeten region of Czechoslovakia to Germany. Eger, Czechoslovakia, October 3, 1938.

Hitler Signs the Munich Agreement (September 30, 1938) and then shakes on it

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September 1938 1ST of 17 assassination attempts planned against Hitler, foiled when Chamberlain handed over Czechoslovakia

  • Assassination plotters feared British and French would not stand for it and go to war with Germany, but they were wrong
  • 11 November 1938 Weapons law excludes Jews, Gypsies, and Nazi opponents from owning guns, later extended the ban to knives and clubs
  • The Weimar government had made all gun owners register their weapons with the government
  • The Nazis used the list to disarm their opponents
  • Once their opponents were defenseless, the serious violence against the Jews was under way

Hitler enters the Sudetenland

kristallnacht night of the broken glass
Kristallnacht, “Night of the Broken Glass”
  • November 10, 1938, ReinhardHeydrich organized program (riot against Jews)
  • Vandalism of almost 1000 synagogues and Jewish businesses, Jews harassed, beaten and 91 killed
  • Broken glass from windows looks like crystal; Jews do not get money from insurance
  • German Jews required to pay $1 billion marks to repair the damages
  • Storefronts of Jewish-owned businesses damaged during the Kristallnacht

The windows of a Jewish owned shop are destroyed during the Night of Broken Glass

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During Kristallnacht, the Night of Broken Glass, a synagogue burns in Siegen, Germany. November 10, 1938

1938 Hitler named Time Magazine Man of the Year

Jewish Cemetery destroyed by Nazis

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Non-Aggression PactAugust 23, 1939

Germany and USSR agree not to go to war for ten years, decide to split Poland

Invasion of Czechoslovakia (March 1939)

  • Mountainous Sudetenland was only natural defense, people there are slavs, and Hitler was looking for lebensraum (living space)

Stalin and Hitler

German occupation troops march through the streets of Prague. Czechoslovakia, March 15, 1939

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(1) Vyacheslav Molotov signs the Treatyof Non-Aggression between Germany and the Soviet Union while Joachim von Ribbentrop and Joseph Stalin look on (2) Molotov and Hitler (3) Stalin and Ribbentrop

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Soviet and German generals waving at parade during the official transfer of Brest to Soviet control, September 23, 1939

German and Soviet soldiers during the official transfer ofBrest to Soviet control in front of picture of Stalin

German and Soviet soldiers at the"Border of Peace" established by the pact

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Germany invades Poland on September 1, 1939 & WWII begins

Germansoldiers break down the roadbarrier.The march into Poland began.

In this file photo taken in Sept. 1939, Nazi Germany, foreground left, and Soviet Red Army, foreground right, officers salute the Nazi swastika flag during their joint parade in Brest-Litovsk celebrating a border demarcation in Poland following Hitler's invasion of Poland

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German tanks cross into Poland

The German capture of Warsaw, Poland, seen here with its buildings burning on the horizon

German forces in theoutskirts of Warsaw. In the background of the photograph, the city burns as a result of the German military assault. Warsaw, Poland, September 1939.

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From Left to Right:

  • Junkers Ju-87 (Stukas) vital tosuccess of Blitzkrieg
  • The Stuka dive bomber was the symbol of the Blitzkrieg in Poland in 1939. This terrifying aircraft swept all before it in the first year of the war
  • Messerschmitt fighterbombers crucial to Blitzkrieg
  • German attack leaves Warsawin ruins
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Jews forced to dig their own graves

Nazi soldiers round up Polish Jews

Victory parade in Warsaw

Hitler views the victory parade in Warsaw after the German invasion of Poland

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Invasion of Poland:

  • Germany demands highway to connect Germany to East Prussia
  • Poland refusesGermans blow up their own radio station, blame on Poles
  • Germany invades Poland from three directions, USSR follows
  • GB and France declare war September 3, 1939
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Religion, Holy Days, and the Occult

  • Positive Christianity was Nazis version of Christianity in 1920, thought traditional Christianity was too passive
  • Nazis suspicious of Christianity, too Jewish
  • 1939 Christian symbols banned, “Christ”, angels, shepherds banned in kids’ books, replaced by “emissaries of nature”, “power of the sun”
  • New holy day was the winter and summer solstice; on June 21-22 (Spring and Fall Equinoxes were to be added after destruction of Christianity)
  • 30 January Day Hitler seized power, celebrated as beginning of the Third Reich
  • 20 April Hitler’s birthday
  • 1 May, May Day or Beltane, a fertility festival
  • Second Sunday in May, Muttertag (Mother’s Day)
  • 9 November Blutzeuge (Blood Witness of Nazi Movement, anniversary of Beer Hall Putsch) – martyrs, like a Nazi Good Friday where the savior is rejected, then raised to power
  • Hitler’s Half Birthday, 6 months from his birthday
  • Christmas replaced by “Festival of Lights”
  • Some Nazis believed in the hollow earth theory, which the interior of the earth was heated by a sun and we were on the inside
  • Astrologist Karl Krafft twists Nostradamus’ predictions to describe a Nazi victory, became popular when he apparently predicted the November 1939 assassination attempt on Hitler, later died in a concentration camp after he predicted Goebbels’ propaganda offices in Berlin would soon be bombed (they were)
weird hitler facts
Weird Hitler Facts
  • Hitler had only one testicle – apparently lost one at the battle of the Somme
  • Hitler had an enormous collection of pornography
  • Hitler idolized Henry Ford, also an anti-Semite (Ford wrote book The International Jew: The World’s Foremost Problem), and gave him Germany’s highest award for foreigners, Grand Cross of the Supreme Order of the German Eagle, they had photos of each other on their desks

Hitler’s Girlfriends:

  • Winifred Wagner, widow of Richard Wagner’s son, English father, passed away in 1980
hitler s girlfriends
Hitler’s Girlfriends
  • 1926 Maria “Mitzi” Reiter, 16, (he was 37) attempted to hang herself when Hitler began seeing Geli, she was discovered after losing consciousness
  • Adolf Hitler with his niece GeliRaubal (he drew pictures of her nude
  • Hitler apparently had a sexual relationship with his 17-year-old half niece GeliRaubal who apparently shot herself through the heart in his apartment in September 1931, Hitler gave up eating meat after her death, and claimed meat reminded him of Geli’s corpse
  • Hitler apparently enjoyed having Geli defecate and urinate on his face

Maria Reiter

Hitler lived here together with his niece Geli Raubal. The appartment of Hitler is on the second floor

Geli

more ladies
More Ladies…
  • Unity Mitford, English art student, shot herself in the head when Britain declared war on Germany (she survived)

Unity Mitford

The Mitford Sisters, Unity and Diana: "So Very Nice, and So Very Nazi" Unity Mitford (left) and Lady Diana Mosley (nee Mitford, right), with SS troops at the September 1937 Nuremberg Nazi Party rally. Adolf Hitler called the tall beautiful enthusiastic fascist blonde Diana "the perfect Aryan woman".

Hitler and Unity Mitford

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Eva Braun, began dating her at age 19

  • Unsuccessfully attempted suicide twice (shot herself in the neck 1932, took sleeping pills 1935) before succeeding with Hitler in killing themselves in a Bunker in 1945

Braun and Hitler at Eagle’s Nest

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After dinner and discussion of Gestapo torture techniques, Actress Renate Mueller and Hitler undresses and lay on the floor, he asked her to hit and kick him, verbally abuse him, and hit him with his own dog whip

  • Committed suicide October 1937, either jumped from window or was pushed after being accused of having a Jewish lover