Germany (1871) 1919-1939. Created a republic under a president, chancellor, and the Reichstag (legislature) Signed the unpopular Treaty of Versailles (Germany takes total guilt for WW1) which made the Weimar government even less popular
Weimar Republic-replaced WW1 imperial government in Germany(1919-1939), when Kaiser fled to Holland after WW1
The Allies force Germany to become a democracy against their will.
Germans liked having one strong leader, like the Kaiser, and this may have helped lead to Hitler’s rise (dictator)
Kaiser and flag of Holland
Flags of Weimer Republic
Spartacist Revoltin Berlin:
Spartacists in revolt and a FreiKorps soldier
In 1920 SA, Sturm Abteilung, Storm Troopers, Brownshirts, fought communists in the streets, paramilitary organization
VolkischerBeobachter newspaper copy
Brown shirt uniform
The Horst Wessel song, or Die Fahnehoch (Raise High the Flag) was named for its author Horst Wessel, an SA man who was supposedly killed by communists in a fight in his room in Berlin
Flag high, ranks closed The S.A. marches with silent solid steps. Comrades shot by the red front and reaction march in spirit with us in our ranks. The street free for the brown battalions, The Street free for the Storm Troopers. Millions, full of hope, look up at the swastika; the day breaks for freedom and for bread. For the last time the call will now be blown; for the struggle now we all stand ready. Soon will fly Hitler-flags over every street; Slavery will last only a short time longer. Flag high, ranks closed The S.A. marches with silent solid steps. Comrades shot by the red front and reaction march in spirit with us in our ranks.
“Stab in the Back Theory”—belief that Germany was winning the war but that the army was betrayed by traitorous non-Germans (i. e. Jews) at home
DerDolchstoss (Stab in the Back)
A wheel barrow of inflated currency
Some of Hitler’s storm troopers mingle outside the beer hall (Nov. 9, 1923) & Hitler at the time of the Putsch
Hofbrauhaus the famous beerhall; where Hitler makes his first public speech and became leader of the NAZI Party
Hitler in the crowd (Left) celebrating the outbreak of war in the Odeonsplatz, in front of the Feldherrenhalle war memorial. It was in this same square that the Beer Hall Putsch ended in a bloody melee in November 1923. (Right) Hitler was standing roughly on the circular decoration in the square, in front of the stone lion which forms part of the front of the Feldherrenhalle.
Defendants in the Beer Hall Putsch trial. Ludendorff is fifth from the left, with Hitler to the right. Ernst Röhmis to the right and in front of Hitler. Note that only two of the defendants, Hitler and Frick, were dressed in civilian clothing.
Hitler with Blutfahne flag
Nov. 9, 1935: the 16 NSDAP members killed during the Beer Hall Putsch brought from their graves and buried at the Ehrentempel
Hitler in prison following the Beer Hall Putsch
Hitler’s Cell and Postcard
Hitler after his release from Landsberg
Far left to Right:
Allegemeine SS, WaffenSS,Totenkopfverbande
In 1928, Joseph Goebbelsbecomes the Minister of Public Enlightenment and Propaganda, 5’, 100 lbs, club foot or other deformity of his right foot
Above: Joseph Goebbels Left: Nazi torch rallies
Hitler copies many poses and gestures from a famous German hypnotist from 1920’sNazi salute- SiegHeil“Hail Victory”, “Heil Hitler” - becomes standard greeting
Archeological evidence sought of Aryans, evidence planted by Ahnenerbe (Ancestor Inheritance)
“They Salute with Both Hands Now” by David Low, 1934
Spear of Destiny
The Blue Max
WWI flying ace, 22 kills, earned Pour le Merite (Blue Max), in charge of the Luftwaffe (German Air Force), wounded in Beer Hall Putsch becomes addicted to morphine
Luftvaffe decal on helmet
von Hindenburg swearing Hitler into chancellor’s office
von Hindenburg and Hitler
Ceremony celebrating Hitler as the new Chancellor of Germany in 1933 (Photo credits: USHMM Photo Archives and he History Place)Adolf Hitler and Hermann Göringgreet the participants in the parade as they pass beneath the window of Hitler's new office. Below -- A view of the parade passing
Marinus van derLubbe
Plenary Hall- after the fire
Sign means “Work brings freedom”
Each prisoner at the concentration camp got a cloth insignia, Jews-yellow star of David marked “Jude”, male homosexuals and pedophiles- pink triangle, Jehovah’s Witnesses-purple triangle, political prisoners (anarchists, freemasons) -red triangle, asocial (alcoholic, mentally retarded, prostitute, chronically lazy)-black triangle, Gypsie– first black, then brown, repeat offending criminals-green, race defiler – yellow over a black triangle
ReinhardHeydrich and the Gestapo Flag
Volkswagen, Ferdinand Porsche, People’s car, prepaid, money used to rearm, cars not produced until 1946, factories produced military vehicles instead
This poster links the German Labor Front (the DAF) to World War I soldiers. Just as soldiers were comrades regardless of their standing in civil life so too all German workers are comrades in the DAF, regardless of whether they were white or blue collar.
Ferdinand Porsche aided in the construction of this early VW Beetle prototype
Hitler orders manufacturing of People’s Radioto insure access to propaganda
The Volksempfaenger, or People’s Radio
The text translates: "All Germany hears theFührer on the People's Receiver." The Nazis, eager to encourage radio listenership, developed an inexpensive radio receiver to make it possible for as many as possible to hear Nazi propaganda.
Television was operational in Nazi Germany since before the 1936 Berlin Olympics
Joseph Goebbels, German propaganda minister speaking at book burning
Nazi students and SA unloading "un-German" books as fuel for a book burning on May 10, 1933 in Berlin, Germany. The SA (Sturmabteilung or "Stormtroopers") was the Nazi paramilitary organization under Ernst Röhm. The banner on the back of the truck states, "German students march against the un-German spirit."
Held in Berlin on May 10, 1933, 1000’s of titles were burned on a large pyre. These volumes were collected, stacked and lit a fire by the Nationalist German Students Organization.
The book burning memorial, in the center of Bebelplatz (a 'platz' in Berlin is like a Square in NYC). It's in front of Humboldt University, the distinguished school that produced Einstein, whose thousands of books were burned by the Nazis. The memorial is simply an empty bookshelf, underground, with an inscription that warns, approximately, "What starts with burning books always ends with burning people."
Foreign Minister Konstantin von Neurath Justifies Germany’s Withdrawal from the League of Nations in Front of the International Press (October 16, 1933)
Sculpture of German writers in the platz today
Timeline of Event s:
"This person suffering from hereditary defects costs the community 60,000 Reichsmark during his lifetime. Fellow German, that is your money, too."
Euthanasia(mercy killing) of 90,000 mentally and chronically ill “useless eaters”
“Will the audience kindly keep their seats”
August 2, 1934 Hindenburg dies, Chancellor and President combined into “Der Fuehrer” the leader (HITLER)
State Funeral of Paul von Hindenburg Tannenberg War Memorial; August 7, 1933
Reich President Paul von Hindenburg lying instate on SchloßNeudeck
(Ordensburg were originally castles build by crusading German knights)
Hanna Reitsch, fanatical Nazi test pilot, an exception to the rule
Hitler during the session of the Reichstag, when the “Nuremberg Laws” were adopted
DerVölkischeBeobachter heralds the Nuremberg Laws, September 1935
"I am the greatest pig intown - I have affairs with Jews only." This scene, organized for the press in Hamburg in 1935, appeared in all German newspapers. The man's sign says: "I only take German girls to my room." The Nuremberg laws of 1935 criminalized sexual relations between Jews and "Aryans."
Jewish organizations responsible for cleaning debris of synagogues. They are not to be rebuilt. 3/24/39
Architect’s impression of Germania; the dome is so large it would create its own weather and could rain indoors
Exhibition of Degenerate Art opened 19 July 1937 (Bolshevik or Jewish Art)
Top Right – an example of National Socialist Realism
Bottom – an example from the Nazi Degenerate art show superimposing modern art and photos of handicapped people
Scenes from the film
1937 film, Angel
February 1938 Hitler purges military of those opposed to invasion of Czechoslovakia, Werner von Blomberg unknowingly married to ex-prostitute and nude model, Werner von Fritsch falsely accused of homosexuality, control is complete
1938, Hitler parades in Vienna
Sudetenland- white area
Chamberlain arrives in Munich for conference (left) & Chamberlain arrives back in England and claims “Peace in Our Times” (pictures above)
Mussolini, Hitler, Goering at Munich conference
Lunch with Hitler
(left to right) the British Prime Minister Neville Chamberlain, French Prime Minister Édouard Daladier, Hitler, Mussolini, and Italian Foreign Minister Galeazzo Ciano
Neurath, Premier Daladier,Prime Minister Chamberlain, Ambassador François-Poncet and Weizsäcker at the Munich Conference
Hitler during a triumphal tour of the Sudetenland following the Munich agreement of September 1938. The agreement ceded the largely German-speaking Sudeten region of Czechoslovakia to Germany. Eger, Czechoslovakia, October 3, 1938.
Hitler Signs the Munich Agreement (September 30, 1938) and then shakes on it
September 1938 1ST of 17 assassination attempts planned against Hitler, foiled when Chamberlain handed over Czechoslovakia
Hitler enters the Sudetenland
The windows of a Jewish owned shop are destroyed during the Night of Broken Glass
During Kristallnacht, the Night of Broken Glass, a synagogue burns in Siegen, Germany. November 10, 1938
1938 Hitler named Time Magazine Man of the Year
Jewish Cemetery destroyed by Nazis
Germany and USSR agree not to go to war for ten years, decide to split Poland
Invasion of Czechoslovakia (March 1939)
Stalin and Hitler
German occupation troops march through the streets of Prague. Czechoslovakia, March 15, 1939
(1) Vyacheslav Molotov signs the Treatyof Non-Aggression between Germany and the Soviet Union while Joachim von Ribbentrop and Joseph Stalin look on (2) Molotov and Hitler (3) Stalin and Ribbentrop
Soviet and German generals waving at parade during the official transfer of Brest to Soviet control, September 23, 1939
German and Soviet soldiers during the official transfer ofBrest to Soviet control in front of picture of Stalin
German and Soviet soldiers at the"Border of Peace" established by the pact
Germansoldiers break down the roadbarrier.The march into Poland began.
In this file photo taken in Sept. 1939, Nazi Germany, foreground left, and Soviet Red Army, foreground right, officers salute the Nazi swastika flag during their joint parade in Brest-Litovsk celebrating a border demarcation in Poland following Hitler's invasion of Poland
The German capture of Warsaw, Poland, seen here with its buildings burning on the horizon
German forces in theoutskirts of Warsaw. In the background of the photograph, the city burns as a result of the German military assault. Warsaw, Poland, September 1939.
Nazi soldiers round up Polish Jews
Victory parade in Warsaw
Hitler views the victory parade in Warsaw after the German invasion of Poland
Hitler lived here together with his niece Geli Raubal. The appartment of Hitler is on the second floor
The Mitford Sisters, Unity and Diana: "So Very Nice, and So Very Nazi" Unity Mitford (left) and Lady Diana Mosley (nee Mitford, right), with SS troops at the September 1937 Nuremberg Nazi Party rally. Adolf Hitler called the tall beautiful enthusiastic fascist blonde Diana "the perfect Aryan woman".
Hitler and Unity Mitford
Braun and Hitler at Eagle’s Nest
After dinner and discussion of Gestapo torture techniques, Actress Renate Mueller and Hitler undresses and lay on the floor, he asked her to hit and kick him, verbally abuse him, and hit him with his own dog whip