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Theories and Concepts of Motivation. Theories and Concepts of Motivation: (Major Theories of Motivation). Biological Theories : Instinct --inborn, unlearned behaviors universal to species explain motivation Drive-Reduction --internal tensions “push” toward satisfying basic needs

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theories and concepts of motivation
Theories and Concepts of Motivation

©John Wiley & Sons, Inc. 2007 Huffman: Psychology in Action (8e)

theories and concepts of motivation major theories of motivation
Theories and Concepts of Motivation: (Major Theories of Motivation)
  • Biological Theories:
  • Instinct--inborn, unlearned behaviors universal to species explain motivation
  • Drive-Reduction--internal tensions “push” toward satisfying basic needs
  • Arousal--motivated toward optimal level of arousal

©John Wiley & Sons, Inc. 2007 Huffman: Psychology in Action (8e)

drive reduction theory
Drive-Reduction Theory

©John Wiley & Sons, Inc. 2007 Huffman: Psychology in Action (8e)

hunger and the brain
Hunger and the Brain

Hypothalamus

  • lateral hypothalamus

initiation of hunger and eating

  • ventromedial hypothalamus

cessation of hunger and eating

Neurotransmitters

obesity and eating behavior
Obesity and Eating Behavior

Psychological Factors

In the past, the focus was on

  • emotional state
  • external food cues

Current research is focusing on

  • time and place cues
  • sugar and fat content
disordered eating
Disordered Eating

Anorexia Nervosa

  • relentless pursuit of thinness through starvation
  • more common among females
  • main characteristics

less than 85% of normal weight

unsupported fear of gaining weight

distorted body image

amenorrhea

  • medical dangers and mortality
disordered eating1
Disordered Eating

Causes of Anorexia and Bulimia

  • sociocultural
    • media images
    • family interactions
  • biological
    • genetics
    • serotonin regulation
    • neurological effects of dieting, binging, purging
arousal theory
ArousalTheory
  • People seek an optimal level of arousal that maximizes their performance.

©John Wiley & Sons, Inc. 2007 Huffman: Psychology in Action (8e)

theories and concepts of motivation major theories of motivation cont
Theories and Concepts of Motivation: (Major Theories of Motivation Cont.)
  • Psychosocial Theories:
  • Incentive--motivation results from the “pull” of external environmental stimuli
  • Cognitive--motivation affected by attributions and expectations

©John Wiley & Sons, Inc. 2007 Huffman: Psychology in Action (8e)

intrinsic v extrinsic motivation
Intrinsic v. Extrinsic Motivation

Intrinsic Motivation

  • organismic needs + enjoyability
  • key to achievement

Extrinsic Motivation

  • incentives (rewards, punishments)

Does extrinsic motivation undermine intrinsic motivation?

self determination theory
Self-Determination Theory

Three Basic Organismic Needs

  • competence

self-efficacy, mastery, expectations for success

  • relatedness

warm relations with others, need to belong

  • autonomy

independence and self-reliance

theories and concepts of motivation major theories of motivation cont1
Theories and Concepts of Motivation: (Major Theories of Motivation Cont.)
  • Biopsychosocial Theory:
  • Maslow’s Hierarchy of Needs:interaction of biological, psychological, and social needs; lower motives (physiological and safety) must be met before higher needs (belonging, self-esteem)

©John Wiley & Sons, Inc. 2007 Huffman: Psychology in Action (8e)

maslow s hierarchy of needs
Maslow’s Hierarchy of Needs

©John Wiley & Sons, Inc. 2007 Huffman: Psychology in Action (8e)

social motivation why make friends
Social Motivation: Why make friends?
  • Evolutionary Psychology: Using Darwinian principles to explain human nature.
  • Being nice, making friends must have offered some fitness advantage for our ancestors
  • Evolution of niceness:
    • Kin selection: being nice to those with similar genetics

©John Wiley & Sons, Inc. 2007 Huffman: Psychology in Action (8e)

kin selection
Kin selection
  • There are a number of examples of what appear to be altruistic behaviors among animals. Most are explainable as examples of kin selection.

©John Wiley & Sons, Inc. 2007 Huffman: Psychology in Action (8e)

reciprocity you scratch my back i ll scratch yours
Reciprocity: You scratch my back I’ll scratch yours
  • Non related individuals sometimes engage in reciprocal arrangements, vampire bats share blood, chimps groom for food

©John Wiley & Sons, Inc. 2007 Huffman: Psychology in Action (8e)

indirect reciprocity being nice to the nice
Indirect reciprocity: being nice to the nice
  • Some animals are sensitive to reputation and restrict reciprocal interactions to only those who have a history of playing fair

©John Wiley & Sons, Inc. 2007 Huffman: Psychology in Action (8e)

so why are humans friendly to each other
So why are humans friendly to each other?
  • Kin bias
  • Reciprocal arrangements
  • Reputational rewards

©John Wiley & Sons, Inc. 2007 Huffman: Psychology in Action (8e)

human mate attraction
Human Mate Attraction
  • Using an evolutionary approach to explain why we are attracted to certain traits in members of the opposite sex.
  • Operates at level of “gut” attractions, not conscious evaluation
  • Identifies what types of attractions in members of opposite sex would have enhanced reproductive success in our ancestral past.
  • Argues that problems of optimizing reproductive success would have been different for males and females, and thus would have lead to somewhat different reproductive strategies and attractions.

©John Wiley & Sons, Inc. 2007 Huffman: Psychology in Action (8e)

thomas aquinas on marriage
Thomas Aquinas on Marriage
  • We observe that in those animals, dogs for instance, in which the female herself suffices for the rearing of the offspring, the male and female stay no time together after the sexual act. But in animals in which the female herself does not suffice for the rearing of the offspring, male and female dwell together after the sexual act so long as is necessary for the rearing and training of the offspring. This appears in birds whose young are incapable of their own food after they are hatched…Hence, whereas it is necessary in all animals for the male to stand by the female for such a time as the father’s concurrence is requisite for bringing up the progeny, it is natural for man to be tied to…one woman for a long period…(SCG B3 Q122).

©John Wiley & Sons, Inc. 2007 Huffman: Psychology in Action (8e)

challenges to reproductive success males vs females
Challenges to reproductive success: Males vs. Females
  • Advantages of being male:
    • Cheap sperm: relatively low parental investment cost

Disadvantage:

low paternity certainty

Advantage of being female:

High maternity certainty

Disadvantage:

costly eggs: relatively high parental investment

©John Wiley & Sons, Inc. 2007 Huffman: Psychology in Action (8e)

buss global study on mate attraction over 10 000 subjects from over 30 countries across the globe
Buss: Global study on mate attractionOver 10,000 subjects from over 30 countries across the globe.
  • Female attractions: decrease parental investment by getting good genes and copious resources
  • Male long-term mate attractions: increase paternity certainty, while maximizing reproductive output

©John Wiley & Sons, Inc. 2007 Huffman: Psychology in Action (8e)

evolved male attractions long term mates desire for youth
Evolved Male Attractions: Long-term mates – desire for youth

©John Wiley & Sons, Inc. 2007 Huffman: Psychology in Action (8e)

evolved male attractions beauty
Evolved Male Attractions: Beauty

©John Wiley & Sons, Inc. 2007 Huffman: Psychology in Action (8e)

evolved male attractions chastity
Evolved Male Attractions: Chastity

©John Wiley & Sons, Inc. 2007 Huffman: Psychology in Action (8e)

evolved male attractions long term mates summary
Evolved Male Attractions: Long-term mates Summary
  • 1. Youth/Beauty: increase reproductive value in single mate
  • 2. Chastity/youth: increasing paternity certainty in offspring to be resourced

©John Wiley & Sons, Inc. 2007 Huffman: Psychology in Action (8e)

evolved female attractions long term mates age
Evolved female attractions: Long-term matesAge

©John Wiley & Sons, Inc. 2007 Huffman: Psychology in Action (8e)

evolved female attractions long term mates financial prospects
Evolved female attractions: long-term mates Financial Prospects

©John Wiley & Sons, Inc. 2007 Huffman: Psychology in Action (8e)

evolved female attractions long term mates good genes
Evolved Female attractions: Long-term matesGood genes

©John Wiley & Sons, Inc. 2007 Huffman: Psychology in Action (8e)

evolved female attractions long term mates good genes1
Evolved Female attractions: Long-term matesGood genes

©John Wiley & Sons, Inc. 2007 Huffman: Psychology in Action (8e)

female evolved attractions summary
Female evolved attractions: summary
  • 1. Older mate/good financial prospects: status, stability, resources
  • 2. Cues of masculinity: good genes
  • 3. interaction with ovulatory cycle: evidence for cuckoldry strategy?

©John Wiley & Sons, Inc. 2007 Huffman: Psychology in Action (8e)

human mate attraction long term mates
Human mate attraction: Long term mates
  • Males: young, beautiful, sexually modest
  • Reproductive value; paternity certainty
  • Females: older, high-status (or potential), robust
  • Good genetics, stable secure source of resources.

©John Wiley & Sons, Inc. 2007 Huffman: Psychology in Action (8e)

cross cultural signally
Cross-cultural signally

©John Wiley & Sons, Inc. 2007 Huffman: Psychology in Action (8e)

risks of step parenting note violent step parents represent less than 1 of step families
Risks of step-parenting.Note: Violent step parents represent less than 1% of step families

©John Wiley & Sons, Inc. 2007 Huffman: Psychology in Action (8e)

darwinian strategy to happy marriage
Darwinian strategy to happy marriage
  • For females: Men want paternity certainty, so avoid all jealousy-arousing behavior (don’t even look at other men). Also, take good care of his genes (offspring).
  • For males: Women want resources. All the money is hers. Avoid spending money in any way she dislikes.
  • For both: Both want health (good genes, fertility, etc.) Take care of yourselves. Have some kids – lower divorce rate among couples with kids.

©John Wiley & Sons, Inc. 2007 Huffman: Psychology in Action (8e)