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Theories of Motivation

Theories of Motivation. Definition of motivation Extrinsic and intrinsic motivation Motivation to learn Behavioral views of motivation Using rewards in classrooms Using rewards in classrooms: Instructional Strategies Humanistic views of motivation Cognitive Theories of motivation.

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Theories of Motivation

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  1. Theories of Motivation • Definition of motivation • Extrinsic and intrinsic motivation • Motivation to learn • Behavioral views of motivation • Using rewards in classrooms • Using rewards in classrooms:Instructional Strategies • Humanistic views of motivation • Cognitive Theories of motivation

  2. Definition of motivation • Motivation is a force that energizes, sustains, and directs behavior toward a goal. • Researchers have found a high correlation between motivation and achievement. • Characteristics of motivated students: • They have positive attitudes toward school and describe school as satisfying. • They persist on difficult tasks and cause few management problems. • They process information in depth and excel in classroom learning experiences.

  3. Extrinsic and intrinsic motivation • Motivation can be divided into extrinsic and intrinsic motivation • Extrinsic motivation is the motivation to engage in an activity as a means to an end. • Intrinsic motivation is the motivation to be involved in an activity for its own sake.

  4. Motivation to learn • Motivation to learn refers to “student’s tendency to fine academic activities meaningful and worthwhile and to try and get the intended learning benefits from them” • Students with a motivation-to-learn orientation make an effort to understand topics whether or not they find the topics intrinsically interesting or the process of studying them enjoyable

  5. Theories of Motivation Theories of Motivation Behavioral theories Focus on changes in behavior that results from experience with environt Humanistic Theories Emphasize people’s attem- pts to fulfill their total poten- tials as human beings Cognitive Theories Examine people’s expectations and beliefs and their attempts to understand how the world works

  6. Behavioral views of motivation • Behavioral theories view motivation as a change in behavior as a result of experiences with the environment. • Reinforcers can increase motivation as they do with behavior. • Effective teachers use reinforcers selectively to increase learning and motivation.

  7. Using rewards in classrooms • Some examples of rewards used in elementary schools • 1. approval: i.e. teacher praise • 2. consumable items: candy or popcorn • 3. entertainment: playing computer game • 4. success in competition: being the first • High test scores and good grades • Teacher comments on papers

  8. Using rewards in classrooms:Instructional Strategies • Use rewards for tasks that are not initially intrinsically interesting. • Base rewards on the quality of the work, not mere participation in an activity. • Use rewards to communicate increasing competence

  9. Humanistic views of motivation • Humanistic theories view motivation as people’s attempt to fulfill their total potential as human beings • Humanistic views of motivation focus on the learner as a whole person and examine the relationships among physical, emotional, intellectual, and aesthetic needs. • A positive classroom climate and the relationship between teacher and students is essential to the development of students motivation.

  10. Development of the whole person: Maslow’s hierarchy of needs • Maslow described human needs as existing in two groups: • Deficiency needs: They are needs that, when they are unfulfilled, energize people to meet them. These needs occupy the bottom of the hierarchy • Growth needs: Needs that expand and increase as people have experiences with them. In contrast with deficiency needs, growth needs are never met. For example, as people develop a greater understanding of literature, their interest in it actually increases rather than decreases. • Maslow believed that all people strive for self-actualization, although less than 1% truly achieve it.

  11. The needs for positive regard • Carl Rogers also emphasized people’s attempts to become self-actualized. • Rogers believed that the actualizing tendency is oriented toward personal growth, autonomy, and freedom from control by external forces. • According to Rogers, self-actualization is innate but experiences with others can foster or hinder growth and the development of autonomy. • He suggested that unconditional positive regard is one of the most essentials for the development. • Students who participate and excel in extracurricular activities are regarded more positively than those less successful.

  12. Cognitive theories of motivation • Cognitive Theories of motivation focus on learner’s beliefs, expectations, and needs for order, predictability, and understanding. • There are five cognitive theories of motivation: • Expectancy x value theory • Self-efficacy theory • Goal theory • Attribution theory • Self-determination theory

  13. Expectancy x Value Theory • Expectancy x Value Theory suggests that people are motivated to engage in an activity to the extent that they expect to succeed times the value they place on the success • If the either the expectancy for success or the value placed on success is at or near zero, motivation will also be zero. • Repeated failure results in success expectations that are so low that motivation is also very low • Expectancy for success answers the question: • ‘Am I able to do this task?’ • It is influenced by two primary factors: • Perception of task difficulty, and • Self-schemas (organized networks of information about ourselves)

  14. Factors influencing task • Task value is influenced by four factors: • 1. Intrinsic interest: it is the characteristics of a topic or activity that induce a person’s willing involvement in it. • 2. Importance: it is the extent to which a topic or activity allows a person to confirm or disconfirm important aspects of his or her self-schema. • 3. Utility value: it is the perception of a topic or activity as useful for meeting future goals, including career goals. • 4. Cost: it is the perceived negative aspects of engaging in a task.

  15. Self-efficacy: Beliefs about capability • Self-efficacy is a belief about one’s own capability to organize and complete a course of action required to accomplish a specific type of task. • Self-efficacy describes a more specific and situational view of motivation than that related to self-concept in math, for instance.

  16. Factors influencing self-efficacy • Past performance: i.e. a history of success in giving oral reports, increases a person’s self-efficacy for giving future reports. • Modeling: i.e. observing others delivering excellent reports, increases self-efficacy by raising expectations and providing information about how a skill should be performed. • Verbal persuasion: i.e. ‘I know you will give a fine report’, can also increase self-efficacy. • Physiological and psychological factor: i.e. fatigue or hunger can reduce efficacy, and emotional state such as anxiety can also reduce efficacy.

  17. The influence of self-efficacy on behavior and cognition

  18. The influence of self-efficacy on behavior and cognition, cont.

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