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Theories of Motivation. Work Motivation. Definition Internal State that directs individuals to certain goals and objectives Not directly observable Inferred from behavior variability in behavior is not result of differences in ability situational (environmental) factors. Work Motivation.

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work motivation
Work Motivation
  • Definition
    • Internal State that directs individuals to certain goals and objectives
      • Not directly observable
      • Inferred from behavior
        • variability in behavior is not result of
          • differences in ability
          • situational (environmental) factors
work motivation4
Work Motivation
  • Theories of Work Motivation
    • Internal (Content) Theories
      • Identify factors within an individual that energize, direct, sustain, and stop behavior.
    • External (Process) Theories
      • Describe how personal and situational (environmental) factors interact and influence each other to produce certain kinds of behavior
maslow s hierarchy of needs
MASLOW’S HIERARCHY OF NEEDS

ACTUALIZATION

ESTEEM

SOCIAL

SAFETY

PHYSICAL

mcclelland s learned needs
McClelland’s Learned Needs
  • Need for Achievement
    • a need to accomplish goals, excel, and strive continually to do things better.
  • Need for Affiliation
    • desire for friendly and close interpersonal relationships
        • affiliative interest
        • affiliative assurance
  • Need for Power
    • the need to influence and lead others and be in control of one’s environment
        • socialized power
        • personalized power
equity theory
Equity Theory
  • We are motivated by perceived inequity (unfairness)
  • Perceived inequity creates a state of “unpleasant” tension that we are motivated to reduce
  • How do we perceive inequity (unfairness)?
  • According to Adams, inequity is perceived when our perception of the ratio of our Inputs to Outputs is different from that of a comparison other .
reducing inequity
Reducing Inequity
  • Change your inputs
  • Change your outputs
  • Change your comparison other
  • Alter your perceptions
expectancy theory vroom 1964
Expectancy Theory (Vroom, 1964)
  • Five Components
    • Job outcomes (e.g., pay, promotions)
    • Valence - attractiveness of the outcomes to employees
    • Instrumentality - strength of belief that performance results in outcome attainment
    • Expectancy - strength of belief that effort will result in successful performance
    • Force - amount of pressure within the person to be motivated
goal setting theory
Goal Setting Theory
  • Function of Goals
    • basis of motivation
    • direct behavior
      • For goals to be effective
        • individuals must be aware of goals
        • must accept the goals
      • Factors that influence effectiveness of goal setting
        • goals must be specific
        • goals should be difficult but attainable
herzberg s two factor theory
Hygiene Factors

salary

company policy

physical facilities

administration

working conditions

co-worker relations

Motivators

challenge

autonomy

advancement

recognition

Herzberg’s Two Factor Theory