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Chapter 20 Section 1

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  1. Chapter 20 Section 1 Kennedy and the Cold War

  2. Voters restless in 1960 Economy in recession Soviets developed Sputnik I and long range missiles Military power of US falling behind Soviets U2 incident Cuba aligned with Soviets Seemed like US was losing the Cold War The Election of 1960

  3. Democratic nominee for President-John F. Kennedy Said nation was “adrift” Promised active leadership to get America moving again The Election of 1960

  4. Republican opponent-Richard Nixon Hoped to capitalize on Eisenhower’s popularity Both candidates expresses similar views on policy issues The Election of 1960

  5. 1960 election closest since 1888 JFK wins 2 issues put him over the top Television Views on civil rights The Election of 1960

  6. Well organized campaign Backing of his large and wealthy family Looks and charisma that appealed to voters Kennedy the Candidate

  7. Had to overcome obstacles Only 43-many though inexperienced Catholic- People were afraid he would be too influenced by the Pope Kennedy stated he would make decisions based on national interest, not outside religious pressures Kennedy the Candidate

  8. Nixon/Kennedy debate was the 1st televised debate between presidential candidates Nixon-a foreign policy expert agreed to televised debate b/c he thought it would show Kennedy’s inexperience Televised Debate

  9. People didn’t seem to care about experience-cared more about looks and speech 70 million people watched Both candidates seemed knowledgeable and articulate Televised Debate

  10. Nixon lost the image battle JFK was coached by TV producers – looked better than Nixon Nixon seemed sweaty and nervous JFK looked quick, aggressive and cool Televised Debate

  11. Gave JFK a boost in the polls Began attracting large crowds Launched television age of American politics Televised Debate

  12. October 1960-Atlanta police arrest MLK Jr. King sentenced to 4 months hard labor Eisenhower refused to intervene Nixon took no public position Kennedy and King

  13. JFK phoned King’s wife to express sympathy Robert Kennedy convinced judge to release King on bail African American community supported JFK Kennedy and King

  14. Cold War occupied much of JFK’s attention Said that the Soviets were winning the race for allies in the third world Economically deprived countries of Africa, Asia, and Latin America Kennedy Takes Command

  15. Blasted republicans for allowing Communism to move to Cuba Kennedy took a hard line against the Soviets Wanted to redefine our nuclear strategy Kennedy Takes Command

  16. Eisenhower relied on threat of massive retaliation Using the threat of nuclear arms over minor conflicts was not a risk JFK wanted to take Kennedy Takes Command

  17. Developed a policy of Flexible response Developing American non-nuclear forces in case there was a minor conflict Believed a stronger military would give the President more options in handling a crisis Kennedy Takes Command

  18. Flexible Response resulted in an increase in military spending Boosted conventional military forces Created Special Forces – Green Berets Kennedy Takes Command

  19. Tripled nuclear capabilities of the US Allowed the US to fight limited wars as well as maintain a nuclear balance with the Soviets Kennedy Takes Command

  20. Cuba 90 miles from the US Eisenhower cuts off diplomatic relations w/ Cuba 1/3/61 Revolutionary leader of Cuba Fidel Castro openly proclaimed himself a communist Crisis Over Cuba

  21. Castro promised democracy Led a guerrilla war against dictator Fulgencio Batista Wanted to eliminate poverty and inequality and dictatorship Revolutionize Cuba from “the bottom up” The Cuban Dilemma

  22. US recognized new Castro govmt Believed Castro was a freedom fighter US/Cuban relations got worse when Cuba nationalized oil refineries own by the US & Britain The Cuban Dilemma

  23. Broke up commercial farms and made them communes Castro began to rely on Soviet aid and political repression to enact his reforms Many liked Castro for standing up to the US The Cuban Dilemma

  24. Others said Castro betrayed the Revolution Called him a tyrant that replaced one dictator with another 10% of Cuban population left The Cuban Dilemma

  25. Summer 1960- Eisenhower gave CIA permission to secretly train hundreds of Cuban exiles Hoped their invasion of Cuba would trigger a mass uprising to overthrow Castro The Bay of Pigs

  26. Approved the plan Promised air support to Cuban exiles April 17, 1961 1,400 Cuban exiles landed in Southern Cuba The Bay of Pigs

  27. Nothing worked A prior air strike failed to knock out the Cuban air force – even thought the CIA said it did An advance group sent to distract Castro never reached shore The Bay of Pigs

  28. The commandos that did reach the island were met by 20,000 Cuban soldiers backed by Soviet jets and tanks All exiles were either killed or taken prisoner The Bay of Pigs

  29. Castro turned this into a public relations triumph One American commentator said we “look like fools to our friends, rascals to our enemies, and incompetent to the rest The Bay of Pigs

  30. JFK embarrassed Questioned how the CIA could have screwed up so bad Publicly accepted blame The Bay of Pigs

  31. JFK negotiated w/ Castro for the return of the captured commandos Had to pay Castro a ransom of $53 million in food and medical supplies The Bay of Pigs

  32. Cuba had a powerful ally in the Soviet Union Khrushchev promised to defend Cuba w/ Soviet weapons Including nuclear weapons Cuban Missile Crisis

  33. JFK told Soviets the US would not tolerate offensive nuclear weapons in Cuba October 14, 1962- photos provide evidence the Soviets were building missile bases on Cuba Cuban Missile Crisis

  34. Some of these sites contained missiles ready to launch These missiles could hit US cities in minutes Cuban Missile Crisis

  35. October 22, 1961- JFK informs nation of the Soviet missiles in Cuba Made it clear that a missile attack from Cuba would trigger an all-out attack on the Soviet Union Cuban Missile Crisis

  36. For the next 6 days- the world faced the possibility of nuclear war Soviet ships w/ more missiles were heading for Cuba US Navy quarantined Cuba-ships could not come w/in 500 miles of the island Cuban Missile Crisis

  37. 20,000 US troops assembled in Florida-largest invasion force ever assembled in the US Cuban Missile Crisis

  38. Soviet Ships suddenly stop to avoid confrontation Khrushchev offered to remove missiles if the US pledged not to invade Cuba JFK agreed Crisis over Cuban Missile Crisis

  39. Crisis damaged Khrushchev’s prestige Criticized for backing down from the US His own people as well as the Chinese accused Khrushchev of being weak Cuban Missile Crisis

  40. JFK criticized as well Criticized to exercising brinkmanship when private talks may have resolved the crisis w/out a threat of nuclear war Cuban Missile Crisis

  41. Others believed JFK had been too soft Said he passed up an opportunity to invade Cuba and oust Castro This would have been a mistake- Soviets had more troops and weapons in Cuba than the CIA had estimated Cuban Missile Crisis

  42. Many Cuban exiles blamed Democrats for “losing” Cuba and became Republicans Castro closed doors to Cuban exiles Banned all flights to and from Miami Effects of the Cuban Missile Crisis

  43. Crisis emerged shortly after bay of Pigs fiasco West Berlin became a showcase for Democracy by 1961 Economically prosperous The Berlin Crisis

  44. In 11 years since Berlin Airlift- 3 million east Germans (20% of the E. German population) fled to West Berlin Showcased the failure of E. German communist government The Berlin Crisis

  45. Khrushchev threatened to close off West Berlin JFK refused to give up US access to West Berlin Pledged that Communism would not drive US out of West Berlin The Berlin Crisis

  46. US nuclear power prevented the Soviets from closing off Berlin Instead…August 13, 1961 began building a massive wall to divide East and West Berlin The Berlin Crisis

  47. Berlin wall ended Berlin crisis Further aggravated Col War tension Reduced flow of east Germans into west Berlin Became an ugly symbol of Communist oppression The Berlin Crisis

  48. Searching for Ways to Ease Tensions • April 1963- JFK proposed the creation of a hotline between Washington DC and Moscow • The 2 leaders could now communicate directly should a crisis arise

  49. Limited Test Ban Treaty- barred nuclear testing in the atmosphere Searching for Ways to Ease Tensions