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Chapter 20, Section 1. Spain Builds an American Empire. Voyages of Columbus, Voyage #1. You know the story: “In 1492, Columbus sailed the ocean blue…” Sent by Ferdinand and Isabella from Spain (even though he was not Spanish) His ships: Nina, Pinta, Santa Maria

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chapter 20 section 1

Chapter 20, Section 1

Spain Builds an American Empire

voyages of columbus voyage 1
Voyages of Columbus, Voyage #1
  • You know the story: “In 1492, Columbus sailed the ocean blue…”
  • Sent by Ferdinand and Isabella from Spain (even though he was not Spanish)
  • His ships: Nina, Pinta, Santa Maria
  • Where he landed – Somewhere in the Bahamas
  • Where he thought he landed: East Indies
voyage of columbus voyage 1 continued
Voyage of Columbus, Voyage #1 - continued
  • Named the island “San Salvador”
  • Called the natives that he met “Indians”
  • Columbus was looking for gold, so every island that he passed on the way back, he claimed for Spain, and looked for gold
voyages of columbus voyage 2
Voyages of Columbus, Voyage #2
  • In 1493, Columbus went back. He was no longer and explorer, he was now an empirebuilder.
  • He was in command of 17 ships, and over 1000 people
  • His goal in this voyage was to start “COLONIES”
    • Lands that are controlled by another country
  • The Spanish were the first European country to SETTLE the New World.
more about magellan
More about Magellan
  • Started out with 250 men and 5 ships, with the funding of the Spanish throne.
  • Sailed across the Atlantic Ocean, and around South America, and into the Pacific Ocean.
  • They sailed for months only seeing islands.
  • Food ran out…
  • They landed in the Philippines and Magellan was killed when he got involved in a local war.
magellan stuff cont d
Magellan Stuff cont’d
  • Eventually they started back on their voyage, arriving in Spain in 1522 (3 years after they left)
  • There were only 18 people remaining, on only one ship when they got back
  • These 18 were the first people to circumnavigate the world
amerigo vespucci
Amerigo Vespucci
  • He was the first one who realized that it was a “New World.” (not part of Asia)
  • A German cartographer (map maker) named the New World – “America.”
  • (In honor of him)
spanish conquest in mexico
Spanish Conquest in Mexico
  • Conquistadors – Spanish conquerors
  • The main reason that these guys were out there was to gain gold.
  • Cortez overthrew the Aztecs, even though they were outnumbered, here’s how:
    • Guns and cannons
    • Cortes recruited some native groups that hated the Aztecs
    • Conquistadors carried diseases that the Aztecs could not resist
spanish conquest in peru
Spanish Conquest in Peru
  • Pizzaro took a group of 200 men to Peru
  • They ambushed 30,000 Incan fighters and captured their king
  • Demanded ransom, got the ransom, killed the king, and moved to the capital, and took it over.
spanish patterns in south america
Spanish Patterns in South America
  • Spanish settled and mixed with the natives
    • This mixed culture produced a MESTIZO culture.
  • The Spanish also forced the natives to work for them – this was called encomienda
  • The Portuguese settled in Brazil
  • The made a ton of money of sugar plantations
spanish influence grows
Spanish Influence Grows
  • Due to the wealth, the Spanish were able to extend their art, culture, and military.
  • Also, the Catholic religion spread to South America.
  • The Spanish control of South America was not simple, it took a lot of money and military to occupy their colonies.
chapter 20 section 2

Chapter 20Section 2

European Nations Settle North America

european claims in north america
European Claims in North America
  • After Magellan circumnavigated the planet, European Nations began looking for a more direct route.
  • Countries involved in this search:
    • French, English, and Dutch
  • When they realized that they could not find a more direct route they went to “Plan B”
    • Plan B – Settle Colonies in the “New World”
new france
New France
  • Jacques Cartier
    • Landed in Canada
    • Discovered the St. Lawrence River
    • Founded Mont Real (Mount Royal), known today as Montreal
  • Samuel de Champlain
    • Sailed St. Lawrence River, and founded Quebec – the Capital of “New France”
  • The French were not as interested in building settlements in the New World, as a result they had a lot of land and very few inhabitants
  • They mainly wanted to make money – this was done thru FUR TRADE.
english claims
English Claims
  • The first English settlement in the New World was JAMESTOWN. (1607)
  • It was very difficult at first – 7 of 10 died from starvation, disease, or Indian fights.
    • This was because they were more interested in finding gold, than in planting crops.
    • (When was the last time that you heard of a gold strike in Virginia?)
  • Eventually the settlers found a crop that could make them money - TOBACCO
new england is created
New England is Created
  • In 1620 a group of people called Pilgrims came to the New World seeking religious freedom.
  • Landed in Massachusetts and started a colony.
  • In 1626, another group came over to the America, also seeking religious freedom, they were called Puritans.
dutch claims
Dutch Claims
  • Further to the north, the Dutch started colonies.
  • Their leader was Henry Hudson.
  • The area that they settled was in modern New York.
  • Became known as New Netherlands.
  • The Dutch were not very successful with colonizing so a variety of peoples moved into their area (Germans, French, Scandinavians, and others).
claims in the caribbean
Claims in the Caribbean
  • The French, Spanish, English, and Dutch all claimed islands in the Caribbean.
  • Developed huge sugar and cotton plantations.
  • This required a large labor force, this is where the African Slave Trade got its start.
battles for the new world
Battles for the New World
  • English vs. Dutch
    • England won
    • England established the 13 colonies from Maine to Georgia
  • English vs. French
    • England won
    • Known as the French and Indian War
    • Due to English Westward expansion
  • Natives vs. Settlers
    • Natives were out-gunned and the diseases killed many of them too.
world history chapter 20 section 3

World HistoryChapter 20, Section 3

The Atlantic Slave Trade

the atlantic slave trade
The Atlantic Slave Trade
  • Background
    • Originally, the Native Americans were used for slaves.
    • Native Americans were unable to withstand the disease and died in mass.
    • The Explorers/Settlers looked elsewhere for their “workers” – AFRICA became “The Place.”
  • The Early Stages of Slavery
    • Slavery in Africa
      • Existed for 100s of years in Africa
      • Facilitated by the Muslims when they expanded into Africa
      • Carried further by the Europeans.
the atlantic slave trade1
The Atlantic Slave Trade
  • The Demand for Africans
    • First it was the Portuguese and then the Spanish
    • Reasons to use Africans in the Americas
      • Built up immunity to European diseases
      • Had experience farming
      • Less likely to escape because they were in a new land
      • Skin color made them stand out from free-people
    • Atlantic Slave Trade
      • Enterprise where trading PEOPLE was perceived to be a profitable as trading goods
the atlantic slave trade2
The Atlantic Slave Trade
  • Spain and Portugal lead the way
    • The leaders in the Atlantic Slave Trade were Spain and Portugal.
    • The same countries that were the original leaders of the Age of Exploration
    • Is that a coincidence?
the atlantic slave trade3
The Atlantic Slave Trade
  • Slavery Spreads
    • As the market for slaves grew, England became the leader in the Slave Trade Market.
    • Most Africans who were sold as slaves were sold by other Africans (their captors).
    • Opportunity for profit, outweighed the moral dilemma that faced many people during this time.
the atlantic slave trade4
The Atlantic Slave Trade
  • The Journey to Slavery
    • Middle Passage – the title given to the voyage across the Atlantic (from Africa to the Americas).
    • “I was soon put down under the decks and there I received such a greeting in my nostrils as I had never before smelled.” – Equiano, age 11
    • About 20% of the slaves dies during the Middle Passage.
below deck in the slave quarters
Below Deck in the Slave Quarters

The Middle Passage was the most infamous route of this triangular trade. Although danger lurked constantly throughout the voyage across the Atlantic, the greatest danger to the slave ships always came when they were loading on the African coast. Once aboard the ships, the negroes realized that they were being sent far away from home, and often there was violence even before the ship set sail. However, most of these uprisings were easily put down. Others jumped overboard and plunged from the ship into the sea, choosing to either drown or be devoured by blood-thirsty sharks rather than be taken from their homeland.

Once aboard the ships the blacks would be packed below deck. Captains of slave ships were known as either "loose packers" or "tight packers", depending upon how many slaves they crammed into the space they had. Most ships, especially those of the later 18th century, were "tight packers", carrying a huge quantity of slaves who were often forced to lie in spaces smaller than that of a grave, or in some cases stacked spoon-fashion on top of one another. Regardless, life for a slave in the "tween decks", as they were called, was extremely uncomfortable. In addition to extreme overcrowding, there was also inadequate ventilation, not to mention little or no sanitation. Although some captains would have their crew periodically clean the "tween decks" with hot vinegar, most chose rather to leave them alone, resulting in their atrociously unclean condition. In addition to disease and suffocation below deck, it would not be uncommon to find the body of a slave completely covered by lice.

Eventually, after the arduous 3,700 mile voyage, the slave ship would reach North America. In order to strengthen them before sale, the slaves were normally fed better in the days directly before their arrival in the new world, however their suffering was far from over. Before they could be sold, the slaves would be oiled to make their skin shiny and any imperfections, such as scars from whippings, would be filled in with hot tar in order to improve their appearance and get the best market price. Most slave ships would not be allowed to dock in the ports which they came to due to their horrible stench and the fear of the spread of any diseases which had been spread throughout the ship. Therefore, the slavers would drop anchor a few miles off shore and carry the slaves to land in smaller boats which had been stored aboard the ship. The slaves would then be sold at auction and would live through the rest of their lives in wicked involuntary servitude

the daily routine on the slave ships
The Daily Routine on the Slave Ships

The Daily Routine on the Slave Ships

During periods of good weather, the slaves would be brought up on deck in the morning. At this time the men would be shackled together with iron chains, while the women and children would be allowed to roam about on deck. At about nine o' clock in the morning they were given their first meal of the day. Interestingly, slaves from different sections along the west African coast would often be fed different meals. Those from the Northern part of the Guinea Coast would be fed boiled rice, millet, or cornmeal. Slaves from the Bight of Biafra had stewed yams, and those from still farther south in the Congo River region would be fed starchy manioc, cassava flour, or banana-like fruits. Sometimes a few lumps of raw meat would be thrown in with their food to keep them healthy. It was also at this time in the morning that the slaves were given their daily ration of a half-pint of water in a small pan, called a pannikin.

In the late afternoon came the slaves' second and only other meal of the day. Sometimes it was the same as their first, but most captains were not that humane. The afternoon meal usually consisted only of horse beans, very large beans which are used to feed horses. They were the cheapest form of food available. The beans were boiled until they were pulpy and then covered with a mixture of palm oil, flour, and water. To cover up the horrible taste, large amounts of red pepper, called "slabber sauce", were added.

The captains needed to keep the slaves in acceptable physical condition if they were to be sold at high prices, so each morning after breakfast the slaves were "danced" on deck, in order to give them exercise. Still shackled together, the men were forced to jump up and down until often the flesh of their ankles was raw and bleeding from the iron chains which bound them together. The women and children, who were free of such bonds were better able to dance to the rhythm that was pounded out on an African drum or iron kettle, sometimes with the accompaniment of a fiddle or African banjo played by a crew member. The slaves, otherwise kept miserably in the "tween decks", enjoyed this dancing, as it was their only form of physical recreation during the entire day. Each day at sunset the slaves would be placed back below deck to rest in the misery and filth that was the "tween decks".

During the morning exercises members of the crew roved about the deck carrying whips and would beat those slaves who refused to "dance". Although most whips were made only of simple rope, the wicked cat-o'-nine-tails was also used aboard many slavers. Consisting of nine cords coated with tar, each with a knot at the end, the cat-o'-nine-tails could slash the skin of a slave's back to ribbons in only a few lashes.

Yet the worst time of the Middle Passage came for the slaves when the ship was met with periods of bad weather. During storms the blacks were forced to remain below deck all day and night. The holds were dark, filthy, slimy, and they stank of death. The "tween decks" were often full not only with slaves, both living and dead, but also with blood, vomit, urine, and human waste. Also during periods of inclement weather the slaves were not fed as usual. They were often forced to scrounge for small crumbs and pieces of spoiled food and drink from stagnant puddles of extremely impure water.

the triangular trade
The Triangular Trade

EUROPE

NEW WORLD

AFRICA

the atlantic slave trade5
The Atlantic Slave Trade
  • Consequences of Slavery
    • Africans lost generations of their people
    • Families torn apart
    • Introduced guns to Africa
    • Economic boom in the New World
    • African culture was brought to the Americas
chapter 20 section 4

Chapter 20, Section 4

The Columbian Exchange

the columbian exchange
The Columbian Exchange
  • Definition – The Global Transfer of foods, plants, and animals during the colonization of the Americas.
    • Note: This includes North, Central, and South America
  • Its called the “Columbian” exchange because of Christopher Columbus’ initial contact with the Americas
the columbian exchange1
The Columbian Exchange
  • Items coming to Europe, Asia, Africa from the New World
    • Plants
      • Tomatoes, squash, pineapples, tobacco, and cacao beans (chocolate)
    • Animal
      • Turkey
    • Most important
      • Corn and potatoes
      • “The planting of the first potato in Ireland, and the first sweet potatoes in China probably changed more lives than the deads of 100 kings.”
the columbian exchange2
The Columbian Exchange
  • Items coming to the New World from Europe, Asia, Africa
    • Livestock
      • Horses, sheep, cattle, and pigs
    • Foods
      • Bananas, black-eyed peas, yams, wheat, rice, barley, and oats
    • Disease
      • Small pox, measles, malaria, and Whooping Cough
results of the columbian exchange
Positive

Both areas benefited from the introduction of new items

Economies in both areas were boosted

Negative

Native Americans suffered due to the diseases and weak immune system

Slave trade flourished due to the agricultural opportunities in the New World

Results of The Columbian Exchange
global trade
Global Trade
  • Columbian Exchange prompted a wave of new business and trade practices
  • Capitalism: economic system based on private ownership and the investment of resources for profit.
    • Led to increase in many European nations’ money supply.
  • Joint-stock Company: investors buy stock in a company.
global trade cont d
Global Trade (cont’d)
  • Change in European societies led to growth in towns and the rise of a class of merchants who controlled great wealth!