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Chapter 20 Section 3. monoprotic acid - contains one ionizable H ex - HNO 3 diprotic acid - contains two ionizable H ex - H 2 SO 4 triprotic acid - contains three ionizable H ex - H 3 PO 4. Definitions of acids and bases Arrhenius Definition

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chapter 20 section 3
Chapter 20 Section 3

monoprotic acid- contains one ionizable H

ex- HNO3

diprotic acid- contains two ionizable H

ex- H2SO4

triprotic acid- contains three ionizable H

ex- H3PO4

slide2

Definitions of acids and bases

Arrhenius Definition

acid- hydrogen containing compounds that ionize to yield H+ ions

ex- HCℓ(aq)  H+(aq) + Cℓ-(aq)

base- hydroxide containing compounds that ionize to yield OH- ions

ex- NaOH(aq)  Na+(aq) + OH-(aq)

*not a good definition b/c it omits many substances (ex- NaHCO3 baking soda)

slide3

Bronsted-Lowry Definition

acid- H+ ion donor

ex HCℓ(aq) + H2O(ℓ)  H3O+(aq) + Cℓ-(aq)

-produces hydronium ion- H3O+

base- H+ ion acceptor

-used this definition b/c not all bases contain OH-

but do all form OH- in solution

ex NH3(aq) + H2O(ℓ)  NH4+(aq) + OH-(aq)

slide4

conjugate acid- particle formed when a base gains a hydrogen ion

conjugate base- particle that remains when an acid has donated a hydrogen ion

conjugate acid-base pair- two substances related to each other by the loss or gain of a single hydrogen ion

-an acid donates a proton and becomes a conjugate base

-a base accepts a proton and becomes a conjugate acid

slide5

-page 597- look at examples

amphoteric- substances that can act as acids or bases

Lewis Acids and Bases

acid - substance that can accept a pair of electrons

base - substance that can donate a pair of electrons