Historical Documents and how they relate to you 8th Grade US History Review
Learning Targets: • Explain how the Declaration of Independence reflects an application of Enlightenment ideas to the grievances of British subjects in the American colonies. • Describe how the Northwest Ordinance addressed a need for government in the Northwest Territory and established precedents for the future governing of the United States. • Identify problems facing the national government under the Articles of Confederation led to the drafting of the Constitution of the United States. The framers of the Constitution applied ideas of Enlightenment in conceiving the new government. • Explain how the Federalist Papers and the Anti-Federalist Papers structured the national debate over the ratification of the Constitution of the United States. • Identify how the Bill of Rights is derived from English law, ideas of the Enlightenment, the experiences of the American colonists, early experiences of self-government and the national debate over the ratification of the Constitution of the United States. • Describe the role of the Ohio Constitution in relation to local legislation and regulation of state government.
Declaration of Independence: • BIG IDEA: • Written as a complaint to George III • Outlined signers view of relationship between Govt and citizens. • Placed power with citizens- allowing them to rebel if govt wasn’t protecting their rights. (Hobbes/Locke) • Life, Liberty, and Pursuit of Happiness (Locke) • July 4, 1776- Birth of USA
How the Declaration of Independence Relates to You: • This declaration created the USA! • Declared our independence from Great Britain • “We hold these truths to be self-evident, that all men are created equal, that they are endowed by their Creator with certain unalienable Rights, that among these are Life, Liberty and the pursuit of Happiness.”
Class Activity: Life, Liberty, and The Pursuit of Happiness • What does Life, Liberty, and the Pursuit of Happiness mean to you as a teenager?
Northwest Ordinance: • BIG IDEA: • Created Northwest Territory (1789) • Expanded US landholding westward • Ohio River was the “slave boundary” – Civil War • Also allowed religious freedoms • Ohio became the first state created from this ordinance (1803)
How the Northwest Ordinance Relates to You: • It established Ohio! – where you live!! • It also showed that America was sovereign (in charge) of their new land • Slavery was also NOT allowed in this territory which set up the issues in the Civil War
Class Activity: Ohio, A Free State • Ohio has a rich history of fighting against slavery. How does it make you feel to know that the place you now live was against the acts of slavery?
Articles of the Confederation: • BIG Idea: • 1st government of USA • Purposefully weak- placed most power with states • Framers were afraid a government that was too powerful would abuse power like George III. • Government could not coin money, raise taxes, or give the president law enforcement power.
How the Articles of the Confederation Relate to You: • It really set the stage for something better – the US Constitution (which rules all US citizens) • The weak areas of the Articles of the Confederation were addressed in the drafting of the US Constitution • It was like a US Constitution “rough draft” that had some problems that needed fixing.
Class Activity: Big Govt. or small Govt. • Do you believe that the government should have large or small role in leading the United States and it’s people?
US Constitution: • BIG Idea: • Is the supreme law of the USA • Highlights separation of powers (judicial, legislative, executive) • Role of states and federal govt. • Has been amended 27 times • Bill of Rights would later be added to the Constitution
How the US Constitution Relates to You: • This is the document that ensures your rights as an American citizen (free speech, right to bear arms, etc.) • It ensures to limit the power of government and maintain the power of the people • Without it, your rights could very well be trampled on.
Class Activity: Your Civil Liberties • Recently, a news story broke out about the National Security Agency secretly searching phone records, emails, and text messages of Verizon, AT&T and Sprint phone users for the purpose of “national security” – how do you feel about this from a privacy perspective?
Federalist Papers: • BIG Idea: • written by those in support of the U.S. Constitution • Short Essays attempting to persuade states to ratify the Constitution • Anti-Federalists wrote as well. • They demanded citizens rights (Bill of Rights) be listed against government power before ratification in states
How the Federalist Papers Relate to You: • These documents argued FOR the US Constitution • The papers also were against the Bill of Rights because they believed that the states should protect the rights of the people, not the govt. • Anti-federalist papers wanted to include something like the Bill of Rights in the US Constitution
Class Activity: States Rights vs. Federal Rights • Would you rather have your state make the laws that you have to follow or the federal government? Why?
Bill of Rights: • BIG Idea: • 1st ten amendments to Constitution • Demanded by Anti-federalists • Civil Liberties defined for citizens that cannot be taken away • Protects citizens from the government • 17 amendments added later.
How the Bill of Rights Relate to You: • These GUARANTEE personal freedoms are protected. • Also limits government powers and gives states rights • Without the Bill of Rights, your personal freedoms would be limited.
Class Activity: The Freedom of Speech • Read the First Amendment • What does this amendment mean to you individually? First Amendment: • Congress shall make no law respecting an establishment of religion, or prohibiting the free exercise thereof; or abridging the freedom of speech, or of the press; or the right of the people peaceably to assemble, and to petition the government for a redress of grievances.
Ohio Constitution: • BIG Idea: • Very similar to US Constitution • Includes amendments on education, rights for victims of crime, taxes, and elections. • Example: 2006 Smoking Ban – Ohio Supreme Court
How the Ohio Constitution Relates to You: • We follow the US Constitution but each state has some different rights (smoking ban) • IN 1851 the Ohio Constitution prohibited slavery making it a free state (should be proud of this) • Minimum wage requirements are also in the Constitution
Class Activity: Amending the Ohio Constitution • If you could amend the Ohio Constitution, what would you change? • Think about: • Personal freedoms, environmental issues, health issues, etc.