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PBA Front-End

PBA Front-End

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PBA Front-End

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  1. PBA Front-End Week 4

  2. Using Fonts • Why do we need to consider fonts…? • Make it as easy as possible for the user to read the textual content of a page • To convey feelings…

  3. Using Fonts • Formal definitions: • A typeface: an artistic represen-tation of the characters, etc in the alphabet • A font: A typeface in a given size • However, terms are used interchangeably in digital publishing

  4. Using Fonts • Size of fonts is traditionally measured in points • Not quite a standard measure – most common definition is • 1 point = 1/72 inch ≈ 0.35 mm • More rarely used is pica = 12 points • 1:1 match with ”older” screen resolutions (72dpi)

  5. Using Fonts • Another important component is the space between subsequent lines • Often calling leading 18 pt. leading 12 pt. font

  6. Using Fonts • Two main families of fonts • Serif (with ”feet”), aka Antikva • Sans Serif (without ”feet”), aka Grotesque

  7. Using Fonts • Serif font are considered traditional fonts • Times (new) Roman • Purpose of Serifs (feet) to ”lead the eye” by creating an imaginary line • Debated… Hello there

  8. Using Fonts • Sans Serif fonts (like this) have traditionally been used for short text, e.g. headlines • Are now generally accepted as the best choice for text on screen • Argument: Serifs tend to ”smear” on screens with traditional resolution (72 dpi) • Argument may outdate as screen resolutions improve…

  9. Using Fonts • Choosing the right font for the job… • Make sure the content is readable • Choose fonts that match the general theme of the wesbite

  10. Using Fonts • Make sure the content of a page is readable • The longer the text, the more ”neutral” the choice of font • For large bodies of text, stick with a variant of the main-stream Sans Serif fonts • For short texts like headlines, more freedom

  11. Ski ’n Fun Come with us to the famous resort of Val D’isere, where we will enjoy miles and miles of crystal white alpine slopes, while the vibrant after-ski party life awaits us when darkness falls. Book your ticket at Ski ’n Fun today!

  12. Ski ’n Fun Come with us to the famous resort of Val D’isere, where we will enjoy miles and miles of crystal white alpine slopes, while the vibrant after-ski party life awaits us when darkness falls. Book your ticket at Ski ’n Fun today!

  13. Ski ’n Fun Come with us to the famous resort of Val D’isere, where we will enjoy miles and miles of crystal white alpine slopes, while the vibrant after-ski party life awaits us when darkness falls. Book your ticket at Ski ’n Fun today!

  14. Using Fonts • The big question – how do we pick a font, that matches a certain theme or feeling…? • When is a font ”elegant” • When is a font ”funny” • When is a font ”scary” • No firm rules, use your common sense, and observe what others have done… • …and test your choice (usability)!

  15. Using Fonts

  16. Using Fonts • What about font size…? • Books keep lines of text short (10 cm), to avoid reading fatigue • Modern screens are 30-40 cm wide… • Should we ”mimic” book layout by using larger fonts? • Screen geometry fundamentally different…

  17. Using Fonts

  18. Using Fonts • General tips on font size • Users like larger fonts than designers do • Use leading to increase readability – good choices are 10/12 and 12/14 • Ideally; design to allow the user to change the font size, screen geometry, etc (responsive design) • However, the far majority of users cannot be bothered to change default settings 

  19. Using Fonts

  20. Textual Composition • Even with proper choice of font, the physical organisation of text still matters • Avoid ”walls of text” • Avoid monotony… • …but also avoid too many surprises!

  21. Textual Composition BORING!!

  22. Textual Composition • Various types of ”space” are useful • Margins - separates text blocks from other page elements • Alignment – helps the use to navigate • Can help the user to navigate between lines • Left-justified text is usually considered the best choice for text on the screen

  23. Textual Composition

  24. Textual Composition • Text can also be emphasised in various ways • Classic effects for emphasis • Bold • Italic • Underline • Coloring • CAPITALS

  25. Textual Composition • When could emphasis of text be appropriate? • Introducing a new term • Using an adjective in ”strong form” • Indicating text which also has a function (link) • Draw attention to an important piece of data • …?

  26. Textual Composition • ”…the emergence of quantum physics” • ”…that room was scary, John” • ”…also check out” • ”…more than 2,000 families are affected”

  27. Textual Composition • Tips on text emphasis • Use sparingly, otherwise effect is lost! • Emphasis is for very short text passages, not e.g. an entire paragraph • Emphasis and e.g. choosing a font for a heading is two different things…

  28. Textual Composition

  29. Editorial Style • What does reading on the Web resemble most closely…? • Reading a book • Reading a newspaper • Reading a printed advertisment • Watching TV • Watching a movie

  30. Editorial Style • Reading on the Web of often more goal-oriented than traditional reading • User seek specific information • User will ”scan” pages rather than read pages word-for-word • Delicate balance between web-enabling material and cutting it to pieces…

  31. Editorial Style • What if we have more infor-mation than what ”fits” a single page? • A job for the Information Architect! • How do we split information over several pages in a proper manner?

  32. Editorial Style • Avoid just splitting after size, split after content (chunking)! • One page (not a screenful) should be a logical, fairly self-contained, unit • Having a consistent page structure also helps the user •

  33. Editorial Style • How should individual pages be structured? • Keep in mind that Web users ”scan” pages rather than read them word-for-word • Text segmentation • Break text into subsections • Use descriptive (and plenty of) headings • The inverted pyramid

  34. Editorial Style

  35. Editorial Style The Inverted Pyramid works! It brings the users attention to the section, and enables the user to quickly decide if the section is relevant Historians disagree about when the form was created. Many say the invention of the telegraph sparked its development by encouraging reporters to condense material, to reduce costs. Studies of 19th-century news stories in American newspapers, however, suggest that the form spread several decades later than the telegraph, possibly because the reform era's social and educational forces encouraged factual reporting rather than more interpretive narrative styles

  36. Editorial Style • How should we actually write on the Web? • First consideration: Target Audience! • How would you write when addressing • Urban males, age 18-29 • Girls, age 6-9 • Seniors, age 65+ • Users with high education • …

  37. Editorial Style • Second consideration: User profile • Is the typical user • Recurring – visits this site regularly • Casual/Random – not interested in this particular site, but in a topic (via Google) • Skilled – has extensive background knowledge on the web site topics • Novice – little or no background knowledge

  38. Editorial Style • Tacit style • Assumes the user has a solid background knowledge about the topic at hand • Stick to the point – avoid ”trivial” information • Uses relevant terminology without further explanation • Few external links

  39. Editorial Style • ”Wiki style” • Assumes the user has little or no background knowledge about the topic at hand • Uses relevant terminology only after introducing it • Redundant information is more acceptable • Many external links

  40. Editorial Style

  41. Editorial Style • General advice for (Web) writing: • Never use a long word where a short one will do • If it is possible to cut a word out, always cut it out • Never use the passive where you can use the active • Never use a foreign phrase, a scientific word, or a jargon word if you can think of an everyday English equivalent • Break any of these rules sooner than say anything outright barbarous • Source: George Orwell

  42. Editorial Style • General advice (continued): • Front-load your content • Stick to the point • Cultivate a distinct voice • Think globally • Use numerals for specific numbers

  43. Editorial Style • Rhetoric: the art and technique of persuasion, through oral, written, or visual media • Elements of Rhetorics • Ethos • Pathos • Logos

  44. Editorial Style • Ethos: the credibility and authority of a source of information • Will I believe what you tell me…? • Will my website convey a sense of credibility that is fitting for the source? • Bad ethos: broken links, ”cheap” graphics, outdated content, spelling mistakes, etc..

  45. Editorial Style • Pathos: developing a positive emotional response in the user • Will I feel what you want me to feel…? • Does my website make the user “feel” the desired way? • Graphics, metaphors, storytelling,… • Bad pathos: Conflicting signals, e.g. sad text, happy graphics, etc.

  46. Editorial Style • Logos: Appealing to the rationality and logic sense of the user • Does what you tell me seem rational, logical and plausible…? • Statistics, facts, examples, etc.. • Bad logos: Biased material, inconsistencies

  47. Editorial Style

  48. Editorial Style

  49. Search Engine Optimisation • Search Engine Optimisation (SEO) • Making your website visible to search engines (Google) • Get your website to the top of the result list!

  50. Search Engine Optimisation