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The Ford and Carter Years

How does the country heal during the late 70s?. The Ford and Carter Years. Ford Pardons Nixon. After being sworn in President Gerald Ford tells America “our long national nightmare is over”.

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The Ford and Carter Years

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  1. How does the country heal during the late 70s? The Ford and Carter Years

  2. Ford Pardons Nixon • After being sworn in President Gerald Ford tells America “our long national nightmare is over” • To move the country beyond Watergate, Ford pardons Nixon of any crimes he may have committed while President • Ford loses much public support – but many say it allowed the country to heal quicker from wounds of Vietnam & Watergate

  3. Ford and the Economy • Mid 70s also experiencing an energy crisis due to high oil & electric prices - Ford urged energy conservation • Recession is getting worse, Inflation at 10%, Ford starts WIN – Whip Inflation Now • WIN=Cut spending, higher interest rates, made recession worse • Constant battles w/ Dem Congress – vetoes 50 bills in 2 yrs

  4. Ford’s Foreign Policy • Congress passed War Powers Act, limiting President’s abilities to use troops (60 days), Ford can’t help in S. Vietnam • Kissinger stays on as Sec’y of State, continues Nixon’s détente • Ford participates in the Helsinki Accords • 35 nations signed the Accords, which mend relationships between Eastern and Western Europe

  5. 1976 Election • Ford faces challenge in his own party from CA Gov Ronald Reagan • Ford beats Reagan for Republican nomination, faces Georgia Gov Jimmy Carter in November, Carter seen as an “outsider” • Carter beats Ford in very close election

  6. Economy Worsens • Carter goes to Congress with 100 proposals on Energy Crisis, is met with resistance by Senators who states depend cars/gas • 1978: Carter & Congress agree pass National Energy Act: tax “gas guzzlers” & give tax credits for alternative energy • Americans use less foreign oil so OPEC slows production • Oil prices rise, less gas, inflation climbs to 14%, unemployment is on the rise

  7. Three Mile Island • Many citizens debate if nuclear power is safe in US • US faces nuclear crisis in 1979, series of human errors leads to a partial meltdown of a nuclear reactor at Three Mile Island in PA • Clip: What causes radiation to escape? How many reontgens were measured and is the amount deadly? • http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=eGI7VymjSho Skylab • 1979: US Space Station Skylab is about to fall out of space, people begin to panic, will Skylab fall on me? • Clip: How long was Skylab manned?Where did Skylab eventually hit? • http://videos.huffingtonpost.com/may-14th-the-life-and-times-of-skylab-517353976

  8. Carter’s Foreign Policy • Carter & Sec’y of State Cyrus Vance reject realpolitik policy of Kissinger, want to focus on human rights • Cut off relations with Argentina and Brazil due to dictatorships • Agreed to return the Panama Canal to Panama on 12/31/99 • Signs SALT II w/ Soviets • Boycotts 1980 Olympics in Moscow when Soviet Union invades Afghanistan – Congress refuses to ratify SALT II

  9. Middle East • Carter gets leaders of Egypt & Israel to meet at Camp David • Carter mediates peace agreements between two nations Camp David Accords • Israel returns the Sinai Peninsula to Egypt • Egypt recognizes Israel’s right to exist

  10. Iran Hostage Crisis • 1979: Ayatollah Khomeini tells people of Iran to revolt against the rule of Shah Mohammad Pahlavi, who is backed by US • Shah flees Iran, Khomeini takes control • Carter allows Shah into US for medical treatment • Iranian students storm US embassy taking 52 workers hostage, students demand the return of the Shah for US hostages

  11. 444 Days • Carter refuses, US tries rescue attempt but it fails • Shah dies in hospital – hostages still held for 444 days • Economy & hostage crisis cause Carter to lose 1980 election • Clips : 1) Why was the Shah a good/bad leader? 2) What happens to the Shah in 1953 and who restores him to power? • 3) What happens when Carter lets Shah into US? 4) What happens to the rescue attempt? 5) When are hostages released?

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