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  1. Piracy The pirates disrupted trade because they attacked and robbed trading ships, thus many European and Chinese merchants turned to the British government for strong action against the pirates. Initially the government sent gunboats to patrol the waters and fight piracy. These were effective in destroying many pirates’ ships and hideouts. However, it could not totally eliminate the threat of the pirates. It was only when steamships were used to fight pirates that the threat became less. The steamships were effective because they could sail very fast. They also did not depend on the wind so they could sail anytime against the wind. Thus, by the middle of 19th century, piracy became less of a threat.

  2. To resolve the problem of the Chinese secret societies caused to Singapore, a Chinese Protectorate was set up. William Pickering was the first Protectorate in May 1877. He could speak and understand the Chinese dialects that enabled him to find out more about the secret societies’ plans and also to communicate with the Chinese so as to win their trust and confidence. The Protectorate also carried out several measures to resolve the problems related to the Chinese. All Chinese societies had to register with the Protectorate so that Pickering could get their help to maintain law and order among the Chinese. He also persuaded the Chinese community to settle their quarrels at the Protectorate instead of the going to the Secret Societies. This weakened the power of the secret societies. To prevent abuse of the coolies, Protectorate officials visiting every coolie ship that arrived from China before the secret societies got to them. Coolie-agents and lodging houses were registered which allowed them to visit them to visit the lodging houses and check on the coolies and the agents. To protect women from abuse, the Protectorate set up another department, Po Leung Kuk to rescue young girls from brothels. They also provided shelter to servants who were poorly treated. In this way, they minimize the abuse and the trouble that secret societies caused.

  3. The government attempted to improve the police force too. They increased the pay of policemen so that they would not resort to accepting bribes. They also provided proper training to the policemen so that they would be able to handle unrest.To communicate with the locals, they employed officials who could speak Malay and Chinese dialects, one example for Thomas Dunman. The British also expanded its force by forming the Detective Branch in 1862 which focused on the Chinese secret societies. They did undercover work to find out more information about the societies. In 1906, they recruited Chinese detectives into the Branch which aided in minimizing the problems the Chinese secret societies caused. Modern methods like fingerprinting were introduced too. Thus, by mid-1920s, law and order had improved.

  4. Reasons why Japan attacked SEA Rivalry with Western Powers Linkage : They wanted to conquer SEA because they wanted to humiliate the Western powers by defeating them and getting rid of them from SEA and become the leader of SEA.

  5. Need for raw materials Need to include Japan’s industrialization and the trade embargo Linkage : By conquering SEA, they can get access to raw materials easily and cheaply because SEA was rich in raw materials, for example Malaya was rich in tin and Brunei in oil.

  6. Problem of Overpopulation Linkage : By conquering SEA, Japan could send her people to migrate the areas and ease the burden on food and land in Japan.

  7. Co-Prosperity Sphere Linkage : In this way, Japan will become the leader and powerful.

  8. Reasons for Japan’s victory Weakness of the British Army Include the lack of military power Strategic Error Linkage : Thus, the British Army was weak because the soldiers were inexperienced and lacked on proper training to fight a war. And their strategic error caused them to be unprepared and unable to protect Malaya and Singapore.

  9. Lack of weapons and military support Include everything under British commitments in Europe Linkage : Thus the British lost to the Japanese because they lacked the weapons to fight against the Japanese who had superior weapons. They also lacked an ally support since the Americans were crippled because of Pearl Harbor. This allowed the Japanese to attack Singapore and Malaya easily.

  10. Japanese Army was superior Include military superiority Include high morale Superior Weapons Linkage : Thus, the Japanese army proved to be much superior to the British because their experience and readiness made them a formidable force. And their high morale allowed them to fight their best for their country. In addition, their modern weapons allowed them to establish superiority over the sea, land and air.

  11. Japanese Preparedness Linkage : By learning about the British plans, they were able to capture Malaya easily. The propaganda by Indian spies also helped them to defeat the British because the soldiers loyalty to the British was broken down.

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