transatlantic encounters and colonial beginnings
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Transatlantic Encounters and Colonial Beginnings. 1450-1690. Questions. How did the people in Mesoamerica and the Andes region compare and contrast with the people in North America ? What forces led to the Age of Exploration?

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  • How did the people in Mesoamerica and the Andes region compare and contrast with the people in North America?
  • What forces led to the Age of Exploration?
  • What are the similarities & differences among the Spanish, French, & British patterns of colonization in America?
    • What were the advantages & disadvantages of Spanish, French, & English colonial patterns in terms of long-termcolonization in America?
early inhabitants of the americas
Early Inhabitants of the Americas
  • Migration began 35,000-15,000 years ago
  • Cut off from the Eastern Hemisphere
  • Agriculture independently invented
  • Nomadic hunters and gatherers
  • Spread throughout North and South America
early mesoamericans
Early Mesoamericans
  • 3,000 BCE – settlement in Central and South America
  • Crops such as maize, squash, beans, tomatoes, and potatoes are cultivated
  • Settlements developed into large, complex societies
  • Few animals were domesticated
  • Human labor supplied the work of agriculture
  • Religious centers developed into cities along the Gulf of Mexico
  • 1,200 BCE – emergence of the Olmec
the maya
The Maya
  • Emerged during the 3rd century BCE
  • Lived in modern day Guatemala, Belize, Honduras, El Salvador, and southern Mexico
  • Developed a system of writing
  • Made advances in math and astronomy
  • Developed an accurate calendar
  • Organized into city-states
teotihuacan and the aztecs
Teotihuacan and the Aztecs
  • Teotihuacan was a center of religion and government
  • Believed to be the first great city of the Western Hemisphere
  • Population estimated to have been between 125,000-200,000
  • The Toltecs unified central Mexico after the decline of Teotihuacan
  • The Aztec replaced the Toltec after the exile of the Toltec leader Topilzin
the aztec
The Aztec
  • The main city was Tenochtitlan with an estimated population of 300,000 at its height
  • The Aztec drained swamps, constructed irrigation works and terraces, and used floating gardens (chinampas)
  • Chinampas boosted agricultural production
  • The Aztec rose to power through military might and aggressive expansion
  • Imposed a tribute system on conquered peoples to support Tenochtitlan
andean civilizations
Andean Civilizations
  • The Chavin emerged in the region of modern day Peru around the time of the Olmec in Mesoamerica
  • After the decline of the Chavin, the Moche flourished from 100-700 CE
  • The Moche built an irrigation system and cultivated maize, beans, manioc, sweet potatoes, and coca
  • The Inca became the most powerful civilization in the Andes region
  • A system of roads connected the empire, and runners carried messages so the ruler could keep in touch with his subjects
the people of north america
The People of North America
  • No major civilization controlled large amounts of land in North America
  • Different languages and lifestyles emerged in North America
  • Some groups were nomadic hunters of bison, deer, whales, seals, and walruses (in the Arctic region)
  • Some groups gathered nuts, berries, and roots to supplement fish or meat
  • Development of agriculture did allow permanent settlements to grow
the anasazi
The Anasazi
  • Developed in the southwestern United States
  • Used river water to irrigate their crops of maize, beans, squash, and sunflowers
  • By 700 CE, the Anasazi constructed permanent pueblos (stone and adobe buildings)
  • Most pueblos contained a ritual enclosure called kivas
  • Villages were connected by roads
  • The Anasazi abandoned the area by about 1300
eastern woodland cultures
Eastern Woodland Cultures
  • Agricultural societies emerged in the woodlands east of the Mississippi River
  • Cultivated maize and beans
  • Lived in an environment with abundant trees and rain
  • Many built earthen mounds used for ceremonial stages, dwellings, and burial sites
  • The largest mound settlement was at Cahokia
  • Mound settlements began to be abandoned around 1300 – the same time the Anasazi began to abandon their dwellings
the people of north america1
The People of North America
  • By 1450 most people lived in small kinship-based groups
  • Variety of languages spoken
  • Observed different customs
  • Nomadism and subsistence agriculture was common
  • Population estimated to be 10-25 million at the time of contact with Europeans
  • Settled societies generally traced lineage through matrilineal descent
  • Nomadic groups generally traced lineage through patrilineal descent
the iroquois confederacy
The Iroquois Confederacy
  • North American group that came closest to mirroring the organizations of the Aztecs and Inca
  • Loose alliance of the Mohawks, Oneidas, Onondagas, Cayugas, and Senecas
  • Bound together by a common Iroquois language
  • Had the political and military organizational skills to dominate its neighbors
  • Hiawatha was leader who first organized the Iroquois
portuguese and spanish voyages
Portuguese and Spanish Voyages
  • Portugal began explorations in the early 1400s
  • Henry the Navigator led ventures down the African coast and established a navigation school
  • Navigation technology and advances in ship design pushed exploration forward
  • Bartholomew Dias and Vasco Da Gama set out to sail around the tip of Africa
  • In 1500, Pedro Cabral reached South America and claimed Brazil for Portugal
  • Christopher Columbus sailed across the Atlantic for Spain
the treaty of tordesillas
The Treaty of Tordesillas
  • Did Portugal or Spain control newly discovered lands?
  • In 1493, the Pope drew an imaginary line from north to south
  • Spain claimed all lands to the west of the line
  • Portugal claimed all lands to the east of the line
  • Brazil became Portugal’s only claim in the Eastern Hemisphere
  • Spain began to explore and colonize the Americas
spanish empire in the americas
Spanish Empire in the Americas
  • Conquistadors set out in search of gold and to convert Native Americans to Christianity
  • Hernan Cortes conquered the Aztec in 1519
  • Francisco Pizarro conquered the Inca in 1532
  • Native populations were decimated by disease
  • At the end of the 16th Century, Spain had a massive empire in the New World
a world transformed
A World Transformed
  • Native Americans were eager for European trade; they were not initially victims of Spanish exploration
  • They became dependent on and indebted to Europeans
  • Disease decimated perhaps 95% of Native American population
spanish conquests colonies
Spanish Conquests & Colonies

The Spanish used the encomienda system to create large cash crop plantations using Native American & African slave labor

from plunder to settlement
From Plunder to Settlement
  • By 1650, 1/2 million Spaniards immigrated to the New World
    • Mostly unmarried males came to New World; intermarriage led to mixed-bloodmestizos&mulattos
    • Distinguished between social classes: peninsulares & creoles
    • The Spanish gov’t operated strict control over the colonies
spanish settlements in north america
Spanish Settlements in North America

Spanish missionaries focused heavily on converting Native Americans & establishing missions

  • Juan Ponce de Leon came to FL in 1513, searching for wealth and the fountain of youth
  • Francisco Cornoado searched for the seven golden cities of Cibola in 1540
  • Hernan De Soto led an army in search of gold across the Southeast, and discovered the MS River
  • In 1565, St. Augustine, FL became the first permanent settlement in North America
  • Missions were established in FL and in NM and CA
dutch exploration and settlement
Dutch Exploration and Settlement
  • Organized joint-stock companies like the Dutch East India Company
  • Initial Dutch explorations focused on East and Southeast Asia
  • In the late 17th century, the Dutch entered the trans-Atlantic slave trade
  • In 1624, the Dutch West India Company established the colony of New Netherland
  • Henry Hudson sailed into New York Harbor and claimed the area for the Netherlands
dutch exploration and settlement1
Dutch Exploration and Settlement
  • Interested in extending trading network
  • Little interest in conquest
  • Took a practical approach with Native Americans that did not involve conquest or religious conversion
  • New Netherland was not a democracy
  • Land given to patroons who ruled like medieval lords
  • No elected assembly, but more religious freedom
  • Developed a diverse population
  • Women had some legal rights
french explorations and settlements
French Explorations and Settlements
  • In 1608, Samuel de Champlain founded Quebec; French Empire eventually included St. Lawrence River, Great Lakes, Mississippi
  • Because the fur trade was the basis of the colonial economy, Indians became valued trading partners (not exploitive like Spain)
  • Jesuit priests tried to convert the natives to Christianity
  • Population grew slowly in the French colonies due to the cold Canadian climate
british beginnings in the new world
British Beginnings in the New World
  • Britain was late in their attempts to explore and colonize the New World
  • Internal struggles and religious conflict took focus off colonization
  • Queen Elizabeth I brought stability to Britain
  • Defeat of the Spanish Armada made Britain a superior naval power
  • Britain’s first attempt at colonization was a failure (the “Lost Colony”)
british beginnings in north america
British Beginnings in North America
  • In the 1600s, English settlers arrived in North America
  • Several joint-stock companies were formed to begin English settlement
    • English colonization differed from Spanish & French because the English gov’t had no desire to create a centralized empire in the New World
    • Different motivations by English settlers led to different types of colonies
migrating to the english colonies
Migrating to the English Colonies
  • 17th century England faced major social changes:
    • The most significant was a boom in population – led to competition for land, food, and jobs
    • British gov’t supported efforts to relocate their surplus population to North America (preserved law and order at home)
migrating to the english colonies1
Migrating to the English Colonies
  • Motives for migration to America:
    • Religious: purer form of worship
    • Economic: Escape poverty or the threat of lifelong poverty
    • Personal: to escape bad marriages or jail terms
  • Migration to America was facilitated by the English Civil War & Glorious Revolution
four colonial subcultures
Four Colonial Subcultures
  • The values of the migrants dictated the “personality” of the newly created colonies; led to distinct (not unified) colonies
    • The Chesapeake
    • New England
    • Middle Colonies
    • The Carolinas & Georgia
By the early 1600s, Spain, England, & France had large territorial claims in North America (but these colonies were not heavily populated, especially in Spanish & French claims)

These colonial claims came largely at the expense of the Native Americans already living there

governments in north america
Governments in North America
  • Govt’s in English colonies had more independence from Britain than Latin American colonies
  • Colonial govt’s were all organized differently
  • Govt’s had assemblies, often with two houses
  • Colonists came to think they should share the right to determine colonial rules and regulations
  • No authoritarian viceroys were established
  • Large urban areas did not develop until much later
social patterns
Social Patterns
  • Less rigid social classes based on ethnicity developed in the English colonies
  • Southern colonies did eventually develop strict social classes between black and whites
  • Social classes in the middle and northern colonies were more fluid than in Latin American colonies
  • Most colonists were farmers, and labor patterns emerged differently than in Latin American colonies
  • Indentured servants and slaves were used primarily in the middle and southern colonies where larger farms developed
  • How did the people in Mesoamerica and the Andes region compare and contrast with the people in North America?
  • What forces led to the Age of Exploration?
  • What are the similarities & differences among the Spanish, French, & British patterns of colonization in America?
    • What were the advantages & disadvantages of Spanish, French, & English colonial patterns in terms of long-termcolonization in America?