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Tho Common European Framework and the European Language Portfolio: Developing FL teaching in Europe as Language Education. Viljo Kohonen ELPiPL Project Seminar Kaunas College 12.6.2009. Outline of presentation.
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ELPiPL Project Seminar
Kaunas College 12.6.2009
2.1. Inga Rebenius (2007, Sweden)
2.2. Manolis Sisamakis (2006, Ireland)
2.3. Radmila Perclová (2006, Czech Republic)
2.4. Viljo Kohonen (2006, Finland)
3. Why reflection in FL education, and how to facilitate it in the FL classroom?
4. Discussion: Exploratory practice, two dimensions in teacher development, professionalism
Action-oriented approach: FL learner seen as asocial agent andlanguage user, a whole human being with a unique personal identity > developed in response to the enriching experiences of cultural otherness
> Plurilingual competence to which all knowledge/ experience of language contributes and in which languages interrelate and interact > to be developed as a life-longtask: motivation, skill,confidence(CEFR 2001, 4-5)
2. Socio-linguistic Competence:
TOOL as part of the CEFR, withtwocomplementary functions:
2. Language Biography, 3. Dossier
• Holistic approach: use of the cognitive, emo-tional and volitionalresources and a full range of abilities to carry out communicative tasks, using the specific competences to achieve a given result in communication (including para-linguistic communication)
• Emphasis on initiative, interaction andsocial responsibility: democratic citizenship education for multilingual/-cultural Europe
1. Tool to promoteplurilingualism/-culturalism
2. The property of the learner
3. Values the full range of language and intercultural competence and experience (acquired within or outside formal education)
4. Tool to promote learner autonomy
5. Pedagogic and reporting functions
6. Based on the CEFR(with the A/B/C Levels)
7. Encourages learner self-assessment, and the recording of assessment by the teachers etc.
• Learner autonomy through an interactive process of learning to learn and learning to use language for authentic communication
• ELP:an important tool for developing, and
a formatfordocumenting, the language user’s progresstowards plurilingualism by re-cording the FL learning experiences > formal recognition of proficiency (eg. EUROPASS)
• ELP: bringing the concerns, aims and per-spectives down to the level of the pupils: what they can DO in the FL (at A/B/C levels)
• Descriptor: a clear, transparent, positively formulated communicative act (performing a task) > Self-assessment Grid: descriptors with an independent, stand-alone integrity
• Self-assessment: pupils to consider and specify the level, value and quality of their learning products or FL use
”I can interact in a simple way provided the other person is prepared to repeat or rephrase things at a slower rate of speech and help me formulate what I’m trying to say. I can ask and answer simple questions in areas of immediate need or on very familiar topics” (CEFR, 26)
• I can say basic greetings and phrases (e.g., please, thank you etc)
• I can say who I am, ask someone’s name and introduce someone
> “Can do” Checklists useful for:goal setting > monitoring > self-assessment > more transparent, concrete, accessibleobjectivesfor action
• From “teacher-imposed” differentiation to “self-differentiated” learning: encourage students to work at the frontiers of their current proficiency > “comprehensible output” > meaningful interaction
• Extend and go beyond the current limits > take risks > develop their TL repertoire > take social responsibility for learning: help others to progress in their tasks (peer-support/ help/ assessment/ correction/commenting)
• New culture of collaborative FL education
Inga Rebenius (Sweden):Discourse on Learner Autonomy (LA, Council of Europe): a vague concept, mixing twostrands:
1. ”Mainstream” LA: emphasis on ”learner” > psychological basis, autonomy in language learning(for life-long learning)
> ”technical”, individual perspective: learning to manage one’s learning without the teacher
2. Critical LA:Autonomyas a person:
constrained, relational freedom, through participation in society; interdependence of person and society > individual as a moral subject, as an authentic person > finding > havinga ”voice”
> Revitalizing the LA notion as socialization of pupils towards democratic citizenship through perspectives from moral philosophy, values education/ society membership > use ofeducational power by the FL educators
• ELP helped them to develop ownership for their learning; goal-setting and self-assessment useful for organizing learning; making their own choices
• Getting emotionally engaged in the learning > confidence > ELP as a significant TOOL for autonomy; understanding the ”geography”of FL learning essential
• Teachers: assumed a broader perspective to teaching, feeling more confident/ at ease, less dependent on exams/ textbooks
• Cycles of negotiated learning: continuity for pupils’efforts > capacity for ”chopping” the intimidating TL learning task into more manageable ”chunks” > a cyclic process of goal-setting > monitoring > self-assessment > ”virtuous circle” in FL development > enhanced FL motivation > gained more confidence in using the TL for real communication
• The ELP in Czech compulsory education
• Participants:(1) Pilot project teachers (N=53) and their pupils (N=902) >How was the ELP pedagogy put into practice in the Czech context (1999-2000)?
• Finnish ELP Pilot Project (1998–2001)
1.Significance of the ELP:tracking authenticevidenceof progressover time > self/peer-assessment > reflective learning > new educational culture
2. Flexibility of the ELP: use at all levels of proficiency: doing something personal with the TL > gaining “power” over the TL
> Beginners: small modifications based on textbooks > Intermediate users: more open, demanding tasks > “stretching out” their FL > Advanced users: handling a variety of texts, producing own discourses, interacting fluently
3. Teachers need to understandthe goal of autonomy/ ELP well, and the rationale for developing a reflective approach; Pupils need a great deal of explicit guidance and support
4. Begin with thepupils themselves: firstlearnabasic reflective orientation to FL learning
5. Motivation:teacher needs to justify the benefits of reflection/self-assessment to the students and explain why reflect on learning and assess their FL skills
6. Teacher: significant role in fostering reflection for learninglife-skills:personal comments on the progress > specific, concrete feedback as an important source of motivation for students;laborious for the teacher to do
Pedagogical fishing ...
Leo van Lier (1996, 11):
“To learn something new one must first notice it. This noticing is an awareness of its existence, obtained and enhanced by paying attention to it.
Paying attention is focusing one’s conscious-ness, or pointing one’s perceptual powers in the right direction, and making mental ‘energy’ available for processing”.
1. Personal awareness: Guiding the students to reflect on their beliefsof language learning/ their task and role, as part of the language lessons:
2. Process and situational awareness
3. Task awareness:
– What aims are you going to set for yourself for the this course (this week, etc)?
“Users of the Framework may wish to consider and where appropriate state:…”, i.e., consider different options and arrive at well-informed decisions, in the local context (learning culture)
Language teacher to develop an inquiring professional mind -> a reflective approach
CEFR as a comprehensive “TOOLBOX” containing a set of well-defined concepts; does not providea consistent theory of how to use them in a given setting for a particular educational purpose
> How do I organize/guide my pupils’ work in my classrooms? How do I encourage them?
1. Putting quality of classroom lifefirst
2. Understanding life in FL classrooms
3. Involve everybody in practitioner research
4. Work for mutual development, seeing pupils as developing practitioners in their own right
5. Integrate work for understanding into classroom practices -> use class time to make space for understanding, without losing FL time
6. Continuous work for practitioner-based understanding of learning (Allwright 2006)
• FL classrooms as communities of practice with complex social relationships
> integrating local understandings into the teaching-learning events: teaching, learning and quality of life closely intertwined; culture of learning: sharing and respect
• Situated classroom discourse: participants talk to each other in the context of a shared history of interaction
If you want to go quickly,
If you want to go far,
(an African saying)
1.Professional development and work within a prevailing individual-cognitive dimension: cultural socialization for teacher isolation(cf. Dan Lortie 1975, Schoolteacher)
2.Professional growth and work within a social-interactive dimension: cultural socialization for collegial collaboration
”I did it my way...”
Individual - Cognitive Dimension
”I did it our way...”