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Chapter 18 Nutrition and Metabolism. 6 Major Nutrients. Water Carbohydrates Fats Proteins Vitamins Minerals. Essential vs. Nonessential. Appetite Control. Regulated by hypothalamus (in brain) Hormones: Insulin – stimulates adipose to put glucose into cells and store fat

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Chapter 18 Nutrition and Metabolism


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    1. Chapter 18 Nutrition and Metabolism

    2. 6 Major Nutrients • Water • Carbohydrates • Fats • Proteins • Vitamins • Minerals Essential vs. Nonessential

    3. Appetite Control • Regulated by hypothalamus (in brain) • Hormones: • Insulin – stimulates adipose to put glucose into cells and store fat • Leptin – decreases appetite • NeuropeptideY – increases appetite, negative feedback loop based on ingested calories • Ghrelin – increases appetite (gastric bypass surgery decreases this hormone)

    4. 1916 – a good read! I think the 4 food groups were milk stew, milk toast, milk pudding, and milk soup. • http://research.archives.gov/description/5709999

    5. 1st use of food groups1940s

    6. Old food pyramid – 1990s

    7. How can this be improved??

    8. New – includes visual of serving sizes

    9. Carbohydrates • Primary energy source (4 Calories per gram) • Used to make ribose and deoxyribose + breast milk (lactose) • Monosaccharides – honey, fruit • Disaccharide – lactose, sucrose • Polysaccharides – • meats (glycogen) • Plants (cellulose)

    10. Lipids • Triglycerides – most concentrated source of energy (9 Calories per gram) • Used for phospholipids, cholesterol – hormones, myelin Adipose tissue – pg 158

    11. Liver uses fatty acids to make other kinds of lipids

    12. Food vs. Bad Cholesterol “Carriers” of cholesterol

    13. Cholesterol processing in liver and relation to cardiovascular disease and arterial plaques

    14. High levels of LDL and low levels of HDL increase risk of heart attacks.HDL is believed to carry LDLs away from blood vessels and back to liver for processing.

    15. Proteins • Sources: meat, dairy, nuts, legumes (4 Cal/gram) • Used for: • Antibodies, enzymes, hemoglobin • Muscle (actin and myosin) • Collagen, keratin, elastin (connective tissues) • Biologically complete vs. incomplete proteins Reticular tissue – page 159 Areolar tissue – page 157

    16. Vitamins • “Vital Amines” • Destroyed by heat • Excess can be toxic • Antibiotics can lead to deficiencies

    17. Vitamins • Fat soluble Water Soluble A C D B E K Mainly from meat Bacteria, problem for babies, needed for blood clotting Often serve as coenzymes

    18. Beri-beri, vitamin B Pellagra, vitamin B Glossitis, vitamin B Spina bifida, folic acid Scurvy, vitamin C

    19. Rickets, Vitamin D Goiter, Iodine Xeropthalmia, Vitamin A Fluorosis, fluoride

    20. Minerals • Inorganic, ionized form • Ca, P, S, K, Mg, Na, Cl, Fe, I………..