Chapter 18 Nutrition and Metabolism. 6 Major Nutrients. Water Carbohydrates Fats Proteins Vitamins Minerals. Essential vs. Nonessential. Appetite Control. Regulated by hypothalamus (in brain) Hormones: Insulin – stimulates adipose to put glucose into cells and store fat
6 Major Nutrients • Water • Carbohydrates • Fats • Proteins • Vitamins • Minerals Essential vs. Nonessential
Appetite Control • Regulated by hypothalamus (in brain) • Hormones: • Insulin – stimulates adipose to put glucose into cells and store fat • Leptin – decreases appetite • NeuropeptideY – increases appetite, negative feedback loop based on ingested calories • Ghrelin – increases appetite (gastric bypass surgery decreases this hormone)
1916 – a good read! I think the 4 food groups were milk stew, milk toast, milk pudding, and milk soup. • http://research.archives.gov/description/5709999
Carbohydrates • Primary energy source (4 Calories per gram) • Used to make ribose and deoxyribose + breast milk (lactose) • Monosaccharides – honey, fruit • Disaccharide – lactose, sucrose • Polysaccharides – • meats (glycogen) • Plants (cellulose)
Lipids • Triglycerides – most concentrated source of energy (9 Calories per gram) • Used for phospholipids, cholesterol – hormones, myelin Adipose tissue – pg 158
Food vs. Bad Cholesterol “Carriers” of cholesterol
Cholesterol processing in liver and relation to cardiovascular disease and arterial plaques
High levels of LDL and low levels of HDL increase risk of heart attacks.HDL is believed to carry LDLs away from blood vessels and back to liver for processing.
Proteins • Sources: meat, dairy, nuts, legumes (4 Cal/gram) • Used for: • Antibodies, enzymes, hemoglobin • Muscle (actin and myosin) • Collagen, keratin, elastin (connective tissues) • Biologically complete vs. incomplete proteins Reticular tissue – page 159 Areolar tissue – page 157
Vitamins • “Vital Amines” • Destroyed by heat • Excess can be toxic • Antibiotics can lead to deficiencies
Vitamins • Fat soluble Water Soluble A C D B E K Mainly from meat Bacteria, problem for babies, needed for blood clotting Often serve as coenzymes
Beri-beri, vitamin B Pellagra, vitamin B Glossitis, vitamin B Spina bifida, folic acid Scurvy, vitamin C
Rickets, Vitamin D Goiter, Iodine Xeropthalmia, Vitamin A Fluorosis, fluoride
Minerals • Inorganic, ionized form • Ca, P, S, K, Mg, Na, Cl, Fe, I………..