Nutrition Chapter 18. Healthy Eating and Active Living. What is Nutrition?. The study of how your body uses the food that you eat. WHAT ARE NUTRIENTS?. A nutrient is a substance that provides nourishment essential to the growth and maintenance of life.
NutritionChapter 18 Healthy Eating and Active Living
What is Nutrition? • The study of how your body uses the food that you eat.
WHAT ARE NUTRIENTS? • A nutrient is a substance that provides nourishment essential to the growth and maintenance of life. • They are obtained from food and are used in the body to provide energy and repair cellular tissues.
CATEGORIES OF NUTRIENTS • Carbohydrates • Fats • Proteins • Minerals • Vitamins • Water • Examples?
Macronutrients • The human body requires them in relatively large amounts everyday because they provide the body with energy. Water included. • Which Nutrients provide energy?
Carbohydrates • Preferred source of food energy for your body. • Over 50% of your total daily caloric intake should come from Carb-rich foods. • Body converts carbs into a sugar called glucose which can then be used to fuel physical activity. • Glucose can also be used in the body to burn fat. • There are two types of Carbohydrates
PROTEINS • Found in all cells of the body: muscles, tendons, hair, skin and nails. • Building blocks of enzymes that help with digestion, fighting infections and building blood. • Play a role in sight, hearing taste and smell. • Can act as energy source if body is short of carbs. • Made up of amino acids. • There are 20 different amino acids. • The body produces 11 – called non essential. • The other 9 come from food – called essential.
Fats • Fats are a concentrated source of energy and are especially useful during prolonged physical activity. • Scientific name is lipid • Fats are NOT BAD. • They help with absorption of fat-soluble vitamins. • Too many high fat foods can increase the risk of heart disease, diabetes, obesity and cancer.
Fats • Do play an important role in maintaining good health – however, moderation and planning is required. • IMPORTANT: you should always try to choose high fat foods that also provide nutrients. (granola bars, peanut butter, cheese, meats) rather than higher fat, less nutritious foods. (hot dogs, french fries, potato chips) • http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=gLJJ4BvG19w
Micronutrients • Are essential nutrients needed by our body in SMALL amounts. • Consists of vitamins and minerals • They do not provide energy or calories. • They help the body utilize the energy provided by.... (what?)
Minerals • Help the body get energy from macronutrients. • Help make bones, protein and blood. • They are inorganic substances needed by the body for good health. • Which mineral is important for bones and teeth? How about for carrying red blood cells?
Electrolytes • Electrolytes are minerals that carry an electrical charge when dissolved in the body. They are in all the fluids in your body. • They balance fluid levels, maintain blood pressure and conduct nerve impulses. • 3 types: • Sodium (from salt) • Chloride (from salt) • Potassium (from vegetables and fruit)
Calories • What are calories? • What did you say?
Calorie • Is a unit to measure how much energy we get from the three energy nutrients. (Which are?) • It is a measure of heat – technically, it is the amount of energy needed to raise the temperature of 1 gram of pure water by 1 degree Celsius. • Calorie is actually called kilocalorie (1000 calories) • 3500 calories is equal to 1 pound of fat
Calorie • The three energy nutrients supply energy in different ways: • 1 gram of CHO = 4 calories • 1 gram of protein = 4 calories • 1 gram of fat = 9 calories • General recommendations of calorie consumption: • 45-65% from carbohydrates • 10-35% from protein • 20-35% from fats
Healthy Calories • When eating, we should always work on substituting unhealthy with healthy food choices. • Examples: ??
ENERGY BALANCE EQUATION • The key to achieving and maintaining a healthy body weight is to balance our energy intake with our energy expenditure over the course of a day. • Calorie intake = energy in • Calories burned = energy expenditure
Energy Balance Equation • What is neutral energy balance? • What is negative energy balance? • What is positive energy balance? • Which causes weight loss? • Why are physically active people less likely to be overweight or obese?
Understanding Your Caloric Need • No two people are exactly alike, therefore different amounts of calories are needed each day. • What influences your total daily caloric need/RMR? • Gender • Body size • Genetics • Age • Physical activity level
Harris Benedict Formula • A formula that estimates the amount of energy your body use when it is at rest. • This is known as resting metabolic rate (RMR) • Estimating RMR • RMR = wt(kg) x 24.2 for males • RMR = wt(kg) x 22 for females
Harris Benedict Formula • Used to more accurately estimate an individual's RMR. • RMR for males = 66.5 + (5 x ht in cm) + (13.7 x wt in kg) – (6.8 x age in years) • RMR for females = 655 + (1.9 x ht in cm) + (9.5 x wt in kg) – (4.7 x age in years)
Understanding Vegetarian Eating • Vegetarianism is a describes many different types of eating styles that emphasize vegetables, grains, fruits, nuts and seeds.
What do Vegetarians eat • They find substitutes in foods other than meat sources. Their diets include vegetables and fruits, grains, legumes and soy products (such as tofu and texturized vegetable protein) nuts as a source of protein. • General rule, vegetarians should try to combine two different sources of protein each day.
GOING GREEN – IS EATING VEGETARIAN HEALTHIER? • A vegetarian diet may reduce the risk of: • Obesity/overweight • Heart disease • And some types of cancer • However, poorly planned or overly restrictive vegetarian diets can lead to nutritional deficiencies such as shortages in iron, calcium and zinc. • Where to learn more about vegetarian diet • www.dietitians.ca
Dietary Supplements • These are products that you take by mouth that contain a dietary ingredient and are intended to add to, or supplement the foods that you eat. • Ingredients may include: • Vitamins • Minerals • Herbs • Amino acids • Enzymes
Buyer Beware • Supplements are loosely regulated and it is up to the buyer to learn more about a supplement before making a purchase • Claims made by these supplements may not always be supported by scientific evidence. • Therefore, always be sceptical when ingesting
DO’S & DON'TS OF DIETARY SUPPLEMENTS • Do research the product before buying • Do read labels • Do tell your doctor what you plan on taking • Do report side effects immediately • Don’t believe everything that you read • Don’t buy into phrases such as “clinically proven” • Don't take more than recommended dose
Food over Dietary Supplements • Selecting a balanced diet is the best way to meet your energy and nutrient needs. • Think food first and if necessary consider supplements!
Energy Drinks • Meant to provide mental and physical stimulation for a short period of time. • Chemicals involved: • Caffeine • Taurine (an a.a) • Glucuronolactone (a carb)
SPORTS DRINKS VS ENERGY DRINKS Caffeine is a diuretic which may cause dehydration Dangerous with alcohol- energy drinks are stimulants whereas alcohol is a depressant (think of the nervous system)
Regulation Required for Energy Drinks • Due to the effects, Health Canada advises cautions when using these drinks: • Do not drink excessive amounts • Do not mix with alcohol • Ensure you drink enough water to rehydrate your system • Safety of drinks may not have been evaluated • Report any adverse reactions
Canada's Food Guide to Healthy Eating • This is a tool to help people plan their food choices on a daily basis • It translates recommended dietary allowances of nutrients into actual advice that people can use to change their eating habits • The food guide categorizes food into five food groups • Grain Products • Vegetables and Fruit • Milk Products • Meat and Alternatives • Other Foods (usually high in salt, fat and/or sugar) • Remember: No one food or meal determines the quality of an individuals diet. It is about a persons food choices over time.
Tips to Using the Food Guide • Create a food record • Check and compare • Set a healthy eating goal • Do a progress check • Repeat the goal setting
CANADA'S PHYSICAL ACTIVITY GUIDE TO HEALTHY EATING • This sets out guidelines about how much activity we should strive for each day • Three main components of physical activity: • Aerobic activity • Flexibility activity • Strength activity
Cholesterol • Cholesterol is a waxy substance naturally made by humans and animals essential to body functions • Dietary cholesterol- obtained through food • Blood cholesterol- produced by the body • LDL- the “bad” cholesterol which builds up on the artery walls and increases the risk of heart problems • HDL- the “good” cholesterol which picks up LDL and carries it to the liver to be excreted from the body