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Nutrition and Metabolism. Catabolic and Anabolic Reactions. Catabolic Reactions Larger Molecules are broken down into smaller molecules Energy in the form of ATP is released from broken bonds. Can do cellular work!!! Anabolic Reactions
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Catabolic and Anabolic Reactions • Catabolic Reactions • Larger Molecules are broken down into smaller molecules • Energy in the form of ATP is released from broken bonds. • Can do cellular work!!! • Anabolic Reactions • Smaller Molecules are built up to become larger molecules • Energy in the form of ATP is needed to create new bonds. • Cellular Repair and Growth
Carbohydrates Primary Source is PLANTS!!!! • Sugars (Mono and Disaccharides) • Fruits, Sugar Cane, Milk • Lactose = Galactose and Glucose • Maltose = Glucose and Glucose • Sucrose = Fructose and Glucose • Polysaccharide (Starch α and Cellulose β) • Starch: Grains, Legumes, Root Vegetables • Polymer of glucose monomers • Cellulose: Vegetables
Proteins • Complete Proteins • Animal Products • All 20 amino acids • Meat, Eggs, Milk • Incomplete Proteins • Plant Products • Less than 20 Amino Acids • Legumes, Grains
Lipids • Triglycerides • Saturated • Single bonds, saturated in Hydrogen, fats • Animal fats, some coconut or palm oils • Unsaturated (Mono and Poly Unsaturated) • Double bonds, more energy, oils • Plants oils: seeds, nuts, plants • Cholesterol • Animal Products: Egg Yolk, Meats, Milk
Carbohydrate Metabolism • Glucose = Blood Sugar • Maintenance of Blood Sugar is determined by the liver • Catabolic Reaction: Cellular Respiration = Burn Sugar • Insulin removes glucose from the blood and helps it enter the cells for mitochondrial breakdown of sugar. • If too much insulin is released or blood sugar drops = hypoglycemia • Anabolic Reaction: Glycogenesis = Build Glycogen • If too much glucose in blood, liver converts to glycogen then to fat if unused.
Protein Metabolism • Amino Acids circulate in the blood and are used by the liver and cells for anabolic and catabolic purposes: • Anabolic • Liver—makes Albumin, osmotic regulator • Cells—use amino acids for cellular repair • Catabolic • Make ATP (when carbohydrate and fats not available)
Lipid Metabolism • Triglycerides: Glycerol + Fatty Acids • Anabolic • Used to make plasma membranes, cover neurons • Catabolic • Fat, broken down to acetic acid and are oxidized to acetoacetic acid and acetone = acidosis (ketosis) • Cholesterol • Anabolic • Build cell membranes and hormones.