Disasters & Disaster Management By GS Saini, Director National Civil Defence College, Nagpur
India is one of the most disaster prone countries in the world. • Over 65% land area vulnerable to earthquakes; • 70% of land under cultivation prone to drought; • 40 million hectares to floods; • 8,000 km coastline to cyclones. • A Major Disaster occurs every 2-3 years; • 5 crore people affected annually • 10 lakh houses damaged annually along with human,social and other losses • During 1985-2003, the annual average damage due to natural disasters has been estimated at 7 crore US $
Terrorism Terrorists attack intends to Create Mass Casualties that have a Demoralizing Psychological Impact upon the populace, and cause a loss of confidence in the Government in furtherance of their political or social objectives.
Industrial Chemical Disasters • Methylisocyanate (MIC) incident at Bhopal, India • 3,300 people killed immediately; 16,000 after ten years • 40 tons of MIC released that covered 20 Km2 • Over 500,000 people suffered effects of gas • Ground water hazard for ten years
Disaster ? A Disaster is an event that occurs in most cases suddenly and unexpectedly, causing severe disturbances to people, objects and environment, resulting in loss of life ,property and health of the population. Such a situation causes disruption in normal pattern of life, generating misfortune, helplessness and suffering affecting the socio-economic structure of a region/country to such an extent that there is a need for assistance or immediate outside intervention.
Ingredients of a Disaster • A phenomenon or event which constitutes a trauma for a population/environment. • A vulnerable point/area that will bear the brunt of the traumatizing event. • The failure of local & surrounding resources to cope with the problems created by the phenomenon. • Types of Disasters • Natural - Manmade
Disasters affecting India • EARTHQUAKE • TSUNAMI • CYCLONE • FLOOD • LANDSLIDE • BUSHFIRE • EPIDEMICS • DROUGHT • MAJOR ACCIDENT (FIRE, EXPLOSION, HAZMAT) • CIVIL UNREST
GENERAL EFFECTS OF DISASTER • LOSS OF LIFE • INJURY • DAMAGE TO AND DESTRUCTION OF PROPERTY. • DAMAGE TO AND DESTRUCTION OF PRODUCTION. • DISRUPTION OF LIFESTYLE • LOSS OF LIVELIHOOD. • DISRUPTION TO ESSENTIAL SERVICES • DAMAGE TO NATIONAL INFRASTRUCTURE • DISRUPTION TO GOVERNMENTAL SYSTEMS • NATIONAL ECONOMIC LOSS • SOCIOLOGICAL AND PSYCHOLOGICAL AFTER EFFECT.
DISASTER MANAGEMENT “AN APPLIED SCIENCE WHICH SEEKS, BY SYSTEMATIC OBSERVATION AND ANALYSIS OF DISASTERS, TO IMPROVE MEASURES RELATING TO PREVENTION, MITIGATION, PREPAREDNESS, EMERGENCY RESPONSE AND RECOVERY.”
HUNT FOR HAZARDS Every environment contains potential hazards. However, students can learn to identify them so that they can be eliminated or at least reduced. • Students should identify potential hazards in their classrooms and homes that could cause damage, injury or death during a disaster. • List and, if possible, make changes to eliminate or reduce potential hazards.
Risk • Hazard + Vulnerability = Risk • You can ask students to ascertain the direct causes of most disaster deaths and injuries. Tell students that the phenomenon seldom causes death or injury and most serious damage is caused by falling debris from damaged buildings.
Outcome • Damage to the outside and inside of the building can cause. • Fires from broken chimneys, gas lines, and electrical wires; • Flooding from broken water pipes • Toxic fumes from spilled chemicals • In the community, disasters can cause • Downed power lines, damage to highways, bridges, railroad tracks • Flooding from dam failure, fires from spilled gasoline and other chemicals • Liquefaction and landslides; water sloshing in ponds, pools.
Preparedness at College Students can increase their chances of survival in any disaster by having essential supplies ready, learning about safety and practicing various drills. They can help assemble emergency kits for their home, classroom and family vehicle.
OUTREACH AND REASSURANCE • Building trust with parents, and college personnel is extremely important. • It if therefore important to build trust and reassure parents and teachers about your respectful and careful approach to the children’s well-being. • By having the adults on your side, you can ensure the continuity of follow-up even in your absence. It also emphasizes the “We-are-all–in-this-together” attitude for disaster preparedness.
Conclusion • Research into Human reactions to Disaster has overwhelmingly recognized that Resilience to Disasters is much more commonly displayed by individuals having pre-knowledge and training to withstand the consequences. After five days of agony, Akash Bhavar, 8, smiles as the pain subsides at the city civil hospital in Ahmedabad on Jan 30. Akash and his brother survived but lost their mother when their house on the outskirts of the city collapsed during the earthquake.