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WWII. The Path to War: ASIA. Japanese Territorial Expansion. Natural resources ‘31 invaded Manchuria Coal and iron ore ‘32 declared it the independent state of Manchukuo League of Nations ineffective in stopping Demanded w/ drawal from China

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WWII

The Path to War: ASIA


Japanese territorial expansion
Japanese Territorial Expansion

  • Natural resources

    • ‘31 invaded Manchuria

      • Coal and iron ore

    • ‘32 declared it the independent state of Manchukuo

  • League of Nations ineffective in stopping

    • Demanded w/drawal from China

    • March ‘33 Japan withdrew from the League and remained in Manchukuo

  • Encouraged Italy and Germany to expand


  • Expansion cont
    Expansion Cont

    • Early ‘30s

      • East Indies for oil

      • Needs Chinese ports

      • ‘37 Japan invades South and East China

      • Nanjing Massacre = 300,000 killed by Japanese

    • ‘37 – ‘45 Nat' lists, Ch. Comm. and Jap. fight for control of China


    WWII

    Path to War: Europe


    Italy
    Italy

    • Goal: control Ethiopia

    • ‘34 – border clash and The League did nothing

    • October ‘35 Italy invades

    • The League imposed economic sanctions

      • Included weapons but not oil, coal, iron

      • Ineffective

  • May ‘36 Ethiopia was annexed


  • Civil war in spain
    Civil War in Spain

    • Spain became a Republic in 1931

    • July 1936 Nationalists revolted

      • Francisco Franco

    • Foreign powers intervened

      • Soviet Union + others = Republicans

      • Germany = Nationalists

  • 1939 Results

    • Nationalists won in 1939

    • Franco becomes new fascist dictator

  • DID NOT ALLY W/ GERMANY OR ITALY!


  • Germany s conquest begins
    Germany’s Conquest Begins

    • Hitler attacked the Rhineland in March ‘36

      • Prohibited by V. T.

      • No one acted

  • New alliances threaten peace

    • Rome-Berlin Axis (Oct ‘36)

    • Anti-Comintern Pact added Japan

    • Stalin urged West to form

      • Nothing happened


  • 1 st victim
    1st victim

    • Austria

      • ‘34 Hitler wanted Aust. to join to Ger.

        • Italy mobilized along Aust. border

      • ‘38 Ger. and It. = Allied

        • Hitler tried again

          • March ‘38

          • Offered Political stability

          • United German speaking people

      • Austria asks for help

        • None


    2 nd victim
    2nd victim

    • Czechoslovakia

      • Target b/c prosperous

      • Ethnic conflicts

      • Appeasement

      • Sept ‘38 – Sudetenland

      • Munich Conference (Sept 29, 1938) – Neville Chamberlain (GB) tries to negotiate peace

        • Ger. got Sudetenland

        • Hitler would respect Czech’s freedom

          • Hitler would not take any more territory

        • March 15, 1939 Hitler takes over Czech

      • Western Democracies begin to prepare for war.


    The coming of war
    The Coming of War

    • March 1939 Hitler turns East

      • Memel, Lithuania

      • Danzig, Poland

  • West and Soviets suspicious of each other

    • No alliance was ever formed to stop Hitler.

  • Nazi-Soviet Nonaggression Pact

    • Aug 23, 1939

    • Pledged they would never attack each other

    • Would remain neutral if the other was in war

    • Outlined “spheres of influence”


  • The battle fronts

    The Battle Fronts

    1939 - 1941


    War begins
    War Begins

    • Hitler invaded Poland on Sept 1, 1939

      • Assumed the West would do nothing

    • Two days later, GB and FR declared war on Germany

    • WWII has begun


    Early conquests
    Early Conquests

    • Sept 1, 1939 blitzkrieg on Poland

      • “lightning war” – surprise

      • Used the Luftwaffe, panzers, and then the infantry

      • Poland fell in weeks

  • Stalin forced military bases in Latvia, Lithuania and Estonia, then Finland.


  • Hitler looks to the west
    Hitler Looks to the West

    • 1939 – 1940 Sitzkreig

      • Quiet on the Western Front

    • Scandinavia Falls (April – May 1940)

      • April 1940 GB tries to protect Norway

      • Hitler said the Allies were invading and Denmark and Norway accept “protection of the Reich”

        • Denmark accepts

        • Norway rejects

      • April 9 Hitler attacks Norway and Denmark

        • Germ – loses part of navy

        • Germ – won outlet to the Atlantic

        • Chamberlain replaced by Winston Churchill – May 10, 1940


    Fall of france
    Fall of France

    • Maginot Line…

    • May 10, 1940 Hitler attacks the Low Countries – Lux, Nether, Bel

    • GB, FR move troops to Bel and Hitler uses opening and invades with Panzers

    • Bel, GB, & FR troops trapped; rescued at Dunkirk

    • Germ takes to Paris on June 14

    • FR signs an armistice


    The battle for britain
    The Battle for Britain

    • Hitler’s plan:

      • Win the English Channel

      • Destroy airfields and industries

  • Began August 1940

    • Focus = RAF; Aug 24 – Sept 6 1000 planes/day

    • RAF losses = 466 planes, 103 pilots

    • German losses >

  • Sept 7 – Nov 3 blitzed London

    • Huge damage to London

    • British Hurricanes, Spitfires successful in destroying German pilots.

  • Results:

    • Germany’s 1st loss

    • U.S. Aid (see next slide)



  • American cooperation
    American Cooperation

    • Neutrality Acts…

    • FDR wants to help b/c feels threatened by Hitler

      • Gave 50 old destroyers to GB

      • Enacted cash-and-carry policy

      • Switches to lend-lease policy when GB runs out of $

  • GB and US sign Atlantic Charter (Aug 9, 1941)

    • Freedom of trade

    • Right of people to choose govt

    • Final destruction of Nazi tyranny


  • Eastern europe and africa
    Eastern Europe and Africa

    • June 10, 1940 Italy declares war on FR and GB

    • Battle at Libya (Dec 9, 1940)

    • By 1941 Germany claims Romania, Bulgaria, and Hungary

    • April ’41 GB defeated at Yugoslavia and Greece; forced to escape by sea.

    • April 11, 1941Germ tanks pushed GB out of N. Libya


    Invasion of the soviet union
    Invasion of the Soviet Union

    • Hitler’s Goal: get more “living space,” wheat, and oil

    • Operation Barbarossa (June 22, 1941)

      • German offensive on the SU; a surprise

      • To stop GERM, Stalin orders the scorched-earth policy

      • By Nov 1941, Germany pushed 600 miles inland, controlled 40% of the population, and had taken key cities.

      • Soviet resistance was strong and the winter was harsh

      • Dec 2, 1941 GERM was forced to retreat.


    Japanese expansion
    Japanese Expansion

    • Controlled much of China by the late 1930s

    • July 1940 started the “greater East Asia Co-prosperity Sphere” by taking European colonies such as French Indochina, Dutch East Indies, and Singapore (GB)

    • Response: US placed an embargo on iron

    • Tripartite Pact (Sept 27, 1940)

      • Alliance between GERM, IT, and JAPAN



    Tensions mount
    Tensions Mount

    • Japan attacked Indochina on July 24, 1941

      • US Response

        • Demanded w/drawal from Indochina and China

        • Embargo on oil

        • Froze all Japanese assets in America

  • Hideki Tojo – military dictator - decides to go to war to continue expansion.


  • The plan
    The Plan…

    • US Pacific Fleet was based in Pearl Harbor, Hawaii

    • Yamamoto – commander of JAP navy – plans secret attack

      • November 1941 – JAP fleet leaves for target

      • Japan stages negotiation talks with FDR

  • As talks break down, FDR sends all aircraft carriers and half of the army’s airplanes to Pearl Harbor in prep for attack in SE Asia


  • The attack
    The Attack

    • December 7, 1941

    • W/in 25 minutes torpedoes sank battleships Arizona, Utah, Oklahoma, West Virginia, and California

    • Results:

      • 19 American ships sank or damaged

      • 188 airplanes were destroyed

      • Over 2400 killed

      • 1100 wounded

  • Dec. 8, 1941

  • December 9, 1941 the US declared war on Japan



  • Production
    Production

    • US = Allies biggest supplier

      • Planes, tanks, jeeps, guns, ships

  • Created an economic boom

  • Population shift to war-industry cities (west)

  • Increase in farm production


  • Government expansion
    Government Expansion

    • New Agencies

      • Office of War Mobilization (OWM)

      • War Production Board (WPB)


    Economy
    Economy

    • To pay for the war:

      • Gov't increased the tax base

      • Encouraged war bonds

  • To stop inflation

    • Bonds

    • Rationing

      • Gasoline, heating fuel, tires, coffee, sugar, meat, butter, canned goods


  • The army
    The Army

    • Selective Training and Service Act

      • 21-35 HAD TO register

      • Deferments

  • WWII = 2/3 drafted

  • 300,000 women served

    • WAACS, WASPS, WAVES, SPARS

    • ANC, NNC

    • ROSIE THE RIVETER


  • Promoting the war
    Promoting the War

    • Movies

    • Songs

    • Radio stations


    Japanese american relocation
    Japanese-American Relocation

    • 119,000 Jap-Am on West Coast

    • 1942 – 1945 = Hysteria; imprisoned in 10 relocations camps

      • Minidoka, Tule Lake, Manzanar, Topaz, Granada, Heart Mountain, Poston, Gila River, Rohwer, Jerome

  • Losses = $400 million in property

  • Wanted to disprove accusation of disloyalty






  • Manzanar relocation center with mount williamson in the background 1942
    Manzanar Relocation Center, with Mount Williamson in the Background, 1942


    Battle fronts europe 1942 1945

    Battle Fronts:Europe 1942 – 1945


    Invasion of italy
    Invasion of Italy

    • Attack on Sicily (Mid 1943)

      • Led by Gen. Eisenhower

      • ~40,000 GERMS and 70,000 ITS forces to flee

  • Mussolini’s Downfall

    • July 25, 1943 King Victor Emmanuel III fires Mussolini; has him arrested (later assassinated)

    • Fascist party dissolved

    • Hitler defends Italy and Mussolini in the North

  • Allied forces fight up the peninsula and take Naples, Rome, and Florence.

  • Italy surrenders on June 4, 1944


  • D day
    D-Day

    • Operation Overlord - Allied invasion to win back France

    • June 6, 1944 = D-Day

    • Allied Expeditionary Force led by Eisenhower

    • Tremendous Allied Power:

      • 3 million men

      • 16 million tons of weapons/supplies

      • 9,000 boats

      • 11,000 aircraft


    D day cont
    D-Day cont…

    • Eisenhower’s men cross the English Channel and land at Normandy Beach

      • Bombers, paratroopers

      • Reclaim Paris on Aug 25

  • Continues for months

    • Allies win back Fr, Bel, and the Neths.

    • Germans launch counterattack but are defeated at the Battle of the Bulge


  • The pacific war
    The Pacific War

    • At 1st, JAP seen as liberators, but were soon hated for killing civilians and taking land.

    • Victories:

      • Battle of the Coral Sea (May 1942)

      • Battle of Midway (June 1942); JAP navy defeated

      • Guadalcanal (Aug 1942)

        • Allies, led by Douglas MacArthur, led land, sea, and air battle

        • After 6 months, won 1st of “island hopping” campaigns

  • By Nov 1943 JAPs resort to kamikaze tactics



  • Victory over germany
    Victory Over Germany

    • Battle of the Bulge (Dec 6, 1944 – Jan 15, 1945)

      • German offensive to put a “bulge” in the Allied advance in Belgium

      • Allies stop at the Rhine River

      • Allied use air attacks on German cities – kill 100,000s

  • Soviets move in from East and met US troops at Berlin – late April 1945

  • May 7, 1945 Germany surrenders

  • May 8, 1945 = V-E Day

    • Partisans in IT kill Mussolini

    • Hitler Committed suicide


  • Yalta and potsdam
    Yalta and Potsdam

    • Early 1945 FDR, Churchill, and Stall met at Yalta to discuss postwar Europe

      • US, GB, FR, USSR, and CHI = United Nations

      • Divide GERM, along with Berlin into 4 zones

      • Soviet-occupied regions of E. EURO would hold free elections

      • USSR would get E. Poland

      • Poland would get part of Germany

      • Stalin promised to declare war on JAP to end war

      • USSR would get 3 islands in the N. Pacific

  • Later 1945, meet at Potsdam in Germ

    • Harry S. Truman replaced FDR, Clemet Attlee replaced Churchill

    • Results: Ultimatum to Japan; new tensions…


  • Victory over japan
    Victory Over Japan

    • By end of ‘44, Allied victory clear but JAP wouldn’t surrender

    • JAP rejected ultimatum in July ‘45

    • Truman decided to use the Atomic Bomb

      • End quickly

      • Avoid enormous loss of life with invasion

      • Intimidate USSR


    • Two bombs

      • Hiroshima –Aug 6, 1945

      • Nagasaki – Aug 9, 1945

  • Effects

    • 200,000 JAP die, more later b/c of radioactivity

    • Aug 14, 1945 JAP surrender

  • V-J Day = Sept 2, 1945

  • WWII is over


  • Results
    Results

    • Expensive

    • Millions homeless in Europe

    • Japan – new constitution, more democratic

    • Germany divided

    • US and USSR became main world powers


    • USSR dominates E EURO

    • UN formed

    • Holocaust

    • Loss of Human Life

      • Over 55 million died – 30 mil were civilians

        • USSR = 22 mil

        • GERM = 8 mil

        • JAP = 2 mill

        • US = 300,000