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Rise of Absolute Monarchy in France: The World of Louis XIV. By: Vanessa Garcia, Michael Wilson, Elliot Sherell, James Carr-Thomas, and Karla Armenta. Years of Personal Rule. His reign is look on as when the French monarchy took total control of the nation on all levels.

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rise of absolute monarchy in france the world of louis xiv

Rise of Absolute Monarchy in France: The World of Louis XIV

By: Vanessa Garcia, Michael Wilson, Elliot Sherell, James Carr-Thomas, and Karla Armenta

years of personal rule
Years of Personal Rule
  • His reign is look on as when the French monarchy took total control of the nation on all levels.
  • It began with two powerful chief ministers;
    • Cardinal Richelieu (1585-1642)
    • Cardinal Mazarin (1602-1661)
years of personal rule1
Years of Personal Rule
  • Due to their involvement, they provoked a series of rebellions among French nobles between 1649-1652 called Fronded.
  • He then changed his game plan, realizing that his heavy handed authority and policies would only threaten this Throne.
  • His changes tactics involved a more “gentle” approach then his predecessors.
years of personal rule2
Years of Personal Rule
  • His genius was to make the monarchy the most important and powerful political institution in France while also assuring the nobles and other wealthy groups of their social standing and influence on the local level.
  • He ruled developing enormous energy in to his political tasks.
  • With the support of the hand picked council of royal families, he ruled through councils that controlled foreign affairs, the army, domestic administration, and economic relations.
years of personal rule3
Years of Personal Rule
  • He made sure that the nobility and other major social groups would benefit from the growth of his own authority.
  • Even with all his power, he never tried to abolish those institutions or limit their local authority. He would consult with these political institutions of authority called Parliaments in France developed out of the previous council of the king.
  • They had customary rights of consultation and deliberation with the king, he in judicial bodies would consult with them before passing laws that would effect them.
  • So for a time regional parliaments and other authorities resented the power of the Parisian body and supported the Monarch
versailles
Versailles
  • Louis never missed an opportunity to show of his crown, when the dauphin was born he dresses himself as a Roman Emperor.
  • The central element of the image of the monarch was the Palace of Versailles, which was the largest secular structure in Europe.
versailles1
Versailles
  • Louis was known as the Sun King
  • Versailles housed thousands of the more important nobles, royal officials, and servants.
  • Louis supported France’s traditional social structure and the social privileges of the nobility.
king by divine right
King by Divine Right
  • Louis success was due to the political theorist Jacques-Benigne Bossuet
  • Bossuet quoted the Old Testament that Kings were appointed by and answerable only to God
  • Although Kings might be duty bound to reflect God’s will in their rule, yet as God’s regents on earth they could not be bound to dictate of mere nobles and parliaments.
king by divine right1
King by Divine Right
  • Louis XIV declared “L’etat, c’est moi” or I am the state.
  • His absolutism functioned primarily in the classic areas of European state action—the making of war and peace, the regulation of religion, and the oversight of economic activity
louis s early wars
Louis’s Early Wars
  • Louis XIV wanted to secure its northern borders along the Spanish Netherlands, the Franche-Comté, Alsace, and Lorraine from which foreign armies had invaded France and could easily do so again
louis s early wars1
Louis’s Early Wars
  • Conflicts with Spain and the United Netherlands:
    • War of the Devolution (he supported the alleged right of his first wife, Marie Therese, to inherit the Spanish Netherlands)
    • In 1667, his armies invaded Flanders and the Franche-Comté
    • By the Treaty of Aix-la-Chapelle (1668) he got control of certain towns bordering the Spanish Netherlands.
    • Treaty of Dover, England and France became allies against the Dutch. Then Louis XIV invaded the Netherlands again.
    • Prince of Orange forged an alliance with the Holy Roman Emperor, Spain, Lorraine, and Brandenburg against Louis, and the war ended with the Peace of Nijmwegen.
louis s repressive religious policies
Louis’s Repressive Religious Policies
  • Louis believed that political unity and stability required religious conformity, he carried out many repressive actions against both Roman Catholics and Protestants.
  • The French crown and the French Roman Catholic Church jealously guarded their ecclesiastical independence or “Gallican Liberties” from the papal authority in Rome
louis s repressive religious policies1
Louis’s Repressive Religious Policies
  • After Henry IV conversion to Roman Catholicism Jesuits monopolized the education of French upper-class men.
  • Jesuits served as confessors for Henry IV, Louis XIII, and Louis XIV
  • Jansenism arose in the 1630’s as an opposition to the theology and the political influence of the Jesuits.
louis s repressive religious policies2
Louis’s Repressive Religious Policies
  • Jansenism was modeled after the teachings of St. Augustine, who had influenced many Protestant doctrines.
  • Jansenists, were known to live extremely pious and morally austere lives.
louis s repressive religious policies3
Louis’s Repressive Religious Policies
  • Jansenists became associated with opposition to royal authority, and sympathized with those families involves in the Fronde.
  • Pope Innocent X declared heretical five Jansenist theological propositions, and banned Jansenism
louis s repressive religious policies4
Louis’s Repressive Religious Policies
  • Pope Clement XI issued the Bill of Unigenitus which again extensively condemned Jansenist teachings.
  • Louis instructed the French church to accept the bill despite internal ecclesiastical opposition
  • By prosecuting the Jansenist Louis turned his back on the long tradition of protecting the Gallican Liberties of the French Church
louis s repressive religious policies5
Louis’s Repressive Religious Policies
  • Louis influenced by Madame de Maintenon revoked the Edict of Nantes, causing thousands to join the resistance to Louis
  • France became a symbol of religious repression in contrast to England’s reputation for moderate, it not complete religious toleration.
louis s later wars
Louis’s Later Wars
  • After the Treaty of Nijmwegen Louis maintained his army to full strength and probed beyond his borders.
  • Charles II, last Habsburg king of Spain, died without a direct heir leaving everything to Louis grandson Philip V of Spain.
louis s later wars1
Louis’s Later Wars
  • England, Holland, and the Holy Roman Empire formed the Grand Alliance to preserve the balance of power by once and for all securing Flanders as a neutral barrier between Holland and France.
louis s later wars2
Louis’s Later Wars
  • In the War of the Spanish Succession England had the upper hand, although French arms triumphed in Spain
  • Soon after the war was called a stalemate.
  • France kept the throne, but England got Gibraltar and the island of Minorca, and Louis recognized the right of the House of Hanover to the English Throne.
france of after louis xiv
France of After Louis XIV
  • John Law, a Scottish mathematician and gambler, took over the financial management of the Kingdom from the Duke of Orleans
  • He Believed that a paper-money increase would stimulate France’s economy
france of after louis xiv1
France of After Louis XIV
  • Law organized the bank of Paris called the Mississippi Company which issued paper-money then organized a monopoly.
  • When stock value suddenly rose greatly, smart investors took their stock and sold them for paper-money. Which they later took and traded for gold.
france of after louis xiv2
France of After Louis XIV
  • In February 1720, all gold payments were halted in France. Soon after, Law fled the country. This problem was called the Mississippi Bubble.
  • The Mississippi Company was later reorganized and functioned profitably, but the fear of paper-money and speculation marked French economic life for decades.
france of after louis xiv3
France of After Louis XIV
  • The Duke of Orleans made a second-decision that also lessened the power of the monarchy.
    • He set up a system of councils in which nobles were to serve along with beaurocrats.
    • Years of idle domestication at Versailles worked too well, nobility seemed to lack talent and desire to govern.
france of after louis xiv4
France of After Louis XIV
  • The most effective instrument in this process was the parliaments, or courts dominated by the nobility.
  • The Duke of Orleans reversed the policy of Louis XIV and formally approved the reinstitution of the full power of The Parliament of Paris to allow or disallow laws.
slide26

Parliament: National lawmaking body

  • Parlement: Regional court in France during the time of Louis XIV
the end
The End
  • The End