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Upcoming Issues for COP-11/MOP 1______________ M.J. Mace, FIELD ECBI Pre-COP Workshop to Strengthen Capacity of LDC Negotiators to Negotiate and Implement The UNFCC and Kyoto Protocol 24-25 November 2005 Casa de Mateo Montréal, Canada
Historic Session • First Meeting of the Parties to the Kyoto Protocol • Adoption of decisions on Kyoto flexible mechanisms, including international emissions trading, CDM, JI, compliance system • Initiation of a process for discussing future commitments to address climate change
Four Agendas Under Article 15 of the KP, COP Subsidiary Bodies serve as KP Subsidiary Bodies. • COP-11 (Convention issues) • COP/MOP-1 (KP issues) • SBSTA-23 (Convention and KP issues) • SBI-23 (Convention and KP issues)
Pre-COP Activities CDM Executive Board 23, 24, 25 Nov. Expert meeting on responsemeasures 23-24 Nov. Expert Group on Technology Transfer 23, 24, 25 Nov. Consultative Group of Experts 24-25 Nov. LDC Workshop Junior Negotiators 24-25 Nov.
Week 1 Welcoming ceremony SBSTA 23 SBI 23 Informal Groups Informal Groups Informal Groups G-77 & China COP 11 opens COP 11 plenary COP/MOP 1 opens COP/MOP 1 plenary SBSTA 23 opens SBI 23 opens SBSTA 23 SBI 23 Source: www.unfccc.int
Week 2 Informal Groups SBSTA 23 closes SBI 23 closes Joint High-level Segment COP 11 decisions and conclusions and closing Opening ceremony National statements National statements COP/MOP 1 decisions and conclusions and closing Source: www.unfccc.int
A. COP will adopt draft decisions forwarded from SB-22, SB-23: • Submission of 2nd and 3rd Nat Comms for NA1 Parties • Further Guidance for LDC Fund • Flexibility for Croatia under Article 4.6 • Programme budget for 2006-2007 • Draft conclusions on internal review of Secretariat • Research needs relating to the Convention • Adjustments under Article 5.2
B. Certain COP agenda itemswill be referred to SBI and SBSTA 1. Development and transfer of technologies (SBSTA) • Five-Year Work Programme on Adaptation (SBSTA) • Scientific, technical and socio-economic aspects of mitigation (SBSTA) • Implementation of the Buenos Aires Programme of Work on adaptation and response measures (1/CP.10) (SBI) • Financial Mechanism - Special Climate Change Fund; Report of the GEF (SBI) • Matters Relating to LDCs (SBI)
C. COP Issues for ‘appropriate action’ • National Communications from Annex I, NAI Countries • Annex I Party GHG inventories, trends • Non-Annex I Synthesis Reports from 122 First National Communications • Reducing emissions from deforestation in developing countries (COP, PNG agenda item) • Adequacy of Commitments under Arts 4.2(a) and (b) (COP-4’s outstanding agenda item) • Implications of establishment of new HCFC-22 facilities seeking CERs for destruction of HFC-23 (SBSTA) • Special Report of the IPCC on carbon dioxide capture and storage(SBSTA)
1. Technology Transfer • At COP-7, a technology transfer framework was agreed with 5 elements: (1) technology needs; (2) technology information; (3) enabling environments; (4) capacity building; (5) mechanisms • EGTT to prepare recommendations forenhancing this framework. • EGTT itself will be reviewed at COP-12. • Outcomes of Seminar on development and transfer of environmentally sound technologies for adaptation - held in Trinidad and Tobago in June 2005 – to be considered.
2. Five Year Work Programme on Adaptation • COP 10 requested SBSTA to develop structured 5-year programme of work on scientific, technical, and socio-economic aspects, vulnerability and adaptation to climate change • Negotiations began in May 2005 • Heavily bracketed draft text produced • Informal Workshop held in Bonn October 17-19 • Secretariat prepared discussion paper (Working paper No. 1 (2005)) for the informal workshop • Decision expected at COP-11
Significant issues • Content and structure of work programme • Process for implementation of the WP and modalities (Ad Hoc Group?) • Possible initial action areas, longer-term actions • Possible partners (e.g., WMO, FAO, UNDP, UNEP, GCOS, GEOSS, CBD, IUCN, ISDR, development agencies)
3. Scientific, technical and socio-economic aspects of mitigation • Three in-session workshops have been held under this agenda item (SBSTA 20, 21, 22). • Secretariat has prepared a reporton the topics presented at these workshops, for discussion. • Parties have submitted views on lessons learned from workshops and future steps under this agenda item. • EU seeks a structured work programme on mitigation • SBSTA will report on its work at COP 11.
Financial Mechanism • Special Climate Change Fund • Negotiations on adaptation, tech transfer resolved; mitigation, econ. diversification negs continue - Draft text (FCCC/SBI/2005/10) • Report of GEF to COP 11 • how adaptation activities under decision 1/CP.10 have been supported, and barriers, obstacles and opportunities presented under GEF, SPA, SCCF, LDCF, SGP; Resource Allocation Framework • Matters relating to the implementation of decision 5/CP.8 • Financial needs associated with developing country fulfilment of Convention commitments • 3rd review of effectiveness of the financial mechanism
COP/MOP-1 Agenda • Adoption of KP decisions – forwarded by COP to COP/MOP • Report of CDM Executive Board • Approval of Compliance System • Adaptation Fund • Election of members of • Compliance Committee • JI Supervisory Committee • CDM Executive Board • Future Actions – Art. 3.9 – consideration of commitments for subsequent periods
1. Adoption of Package of Kyoto Decisions Four ‘compendia’ of decisions for adoption by COP/MOP-1: Add. 1 – Land use and land use change (inventory accounting) Add. 2 – Articles 5, 7 and 8 (national systems for tracking emissions in Annex I Parties) Add. 3 – Articles 6, 12 and 17 (flexible mechanisms) Add. 4 – Modalities and procedures for CDM (incl. small scale CDM, afforestation, reforestation etc.) • Compliance decision is not included within these groups • Decisions come from COP-7, COP-8, COP-9, COP-10
2. Report of CDM Executive Board COP/MOP-1 will • adopt decisions related to modalities for CDM as part of the Add.3 compendium. • consider the report of the CDM Executive Board, which may open the door to a discussion of how the CDM has been operating so far (potential to unravel the package of decisions). • elect new members of CDM Executive Board
Significant CDM issues • Governance, staffing, budget • Secure funding needed • Full-time Meth Panel Staff? Consultants? • Methodologies • Consolidated methodologies reduce cost, workload v. new meth for each project • Additionality tool • Clarify role – voluntary or mandatory • CERs for HFC-3 reduction – new and existing HCFC-22 facilities • Perverse incentives – Montreal Protocol phase out of ODS • Massive number of CERs possible – low hanging fruit • Impacts on market price of CERs • Ideally who should fund reduction? CDM? GEF?
3. KP Compliance System • COP/MOP-1 required to “approve”procedures and mechanisms to determine and address cases of non-compliance with KP • At COP-7, procedures and mechanisms agreed (decision 24/CP.7) • But legal form of adoption not agreed • Decision? Amendment? Other approach?)
4. Adaptation Fund • COP-7 agreed to establish an Adaptation Fund “to finance concrete adaptation projects and programmes” in developing country Parties to KP • AF to be financed through a 2% share of the proceeds of CDM project credits (certified emission reductions or CERs) • COP/MOP-1 will be asked to elaborate modalities for operation of fund.
5. Post-2012 Issues • Article 3.9 of KP: COP required to “initiate the consideration” of commitments for subsequent commitment periods “at least 7 years before the end of the first commitment period” [in 2005] • Article 3.9 anticipates binding commitments for Annex I Parties; • does not address future commitments for Non-Annex I Parties, or non-Kyoto Parties (i.e, US, Australia) • Issue: how to engage non-KP Parties in Post-2012 discussions? (Australia, US)? • Mechanism for considering future commitments has not yet been agreed, and will be discussed at COP/MOP-1 (e.g. process, milestones, timeframes, Ad Hoc Group?)
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