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RECOMMENDED DESIGN CONSIDERATIONS AND GUIDE SPECIFICATIONS
Show the benefit that SPEC-Foam will provide energy savings, quieter living environment, easier temperature control, less drafty interiors, reduce dust and pollutants and provide a controlled environment thus reducing and/or eliminating the potential for mold growth.
Airtight SPEC-FOAM insulated wall R-value compared to traditional fiberglass
ORNL performance check between whole building thermal performance criteria and exterior wall measured clear wallR-value thermal bridging, thermal mass and airtightness
Racking force, shearing loads and lateral loads caused by wind, snow, and changes in live loads generate compressive force. Although common and customary building practices are followed and enforced by code officials, many times homes are built to minimal standards. Minimal standards are usually safe but may be noticed by unsuspecting homeowners during habitation of the structure.
Compressive force will distort a wall from a rectangular shape to an offset parallelogram. SPEC-FOAM foam will provide 2.5 to 3 times the racking strength to identical wall assemblies of different construction.
Identical 8’x8’ models are tested with Horizontal / lateral force is applied in 400 lb. increments until failure is observed.
Wind wash is also air intrusion. Unlike air infiltration, wind wash occurs when wind drives air into a wall cavity and then exists out of the same orifice. The interior envelope of the structure has not been breached, but the stability of the internal wall thermal gradient has been disrupted.
Wind wash can undermine and reduce total R-value with a wall assembly using traditional insulation. Wind Wash can occur separately from intrusion. SPEC FOAM eliminates wind wash and the need for exterior housewraps and barriers.
The introduction of blower doors to weatherization providers has greatly increased their effectiveness by allowing them to accurately locate the holes in the building envelope where outside air infiltrates indoors. (Credit: David Saum, Infiltec)
To discuss the impact of air leakage, it’s helpful to have a unit of measurement. One common unit is “air changes per hour” (ach), which refers to the number of times in an hour that a volume of air equal to the volume of the house will pass through the building. Here’s a simple example. The footprint of this house is 40 ft. by 45ft. (1800 sq. ft.), and the ceilings are 8 ft. high. (40 x 45 x 8 = 14,400 cu. ft.)
If the air leakage rate of this house is 0.5 ach, then half its volume (7,200 cu. ft.) of air would move through it in an hour. That’s 120 cu. ft. per minute. (7,200 cu. ft./hr. ÷ 60 min.)
Here’s another way to look at the difference that air sealing can make. Imagine that all the leaks were combined into a single hole in the wall. That typical 1800 sq. ft. house would have a hole about 120 sq. in., or 10 in. x 12 in. Standard air sealing would reduce the whole to 60 sq. in., while advanced air sealing would cut it to about 35 sq. in. For comparison, the area of this page is about 94 sq. in
The heating load due to air leakage can make up about a quarter to a third of a home’s total space heating requirement. Often in newer homes built with more efficient windows and doors and higher levels of insulation, little attention is paid to air sealing. Builders believe they construct “quality” homes and don’t believe that a little air leakage is “that big a deal, after all, a house has got to breathe.”
Oikos Green Building Source
Oikos Greeen Building Source
If the ductwork or the air handler is outside the heated space, air will leak through the joints, seams, filter slots, plenum connections and maintenance openings, unless they are properly sealed. The leakage is greatest when the system is on, because the blower creates higher pressure differences between the inside and outside of the duct.
But there is some leakage even when the fan is off. Ducts are commonly located in crawlspace, basements, or attics, but the air in ducts is really inside air. Warm indoor air rises into return ductwork in the attic even with the blower off. This air can then leak into the attic, which contributes to the stack effect. Likewise, openings in supply ducts in the lower portion of the home allow air to enter from the crawlspace or unheated basement.
Oikos, Green Building Source
A forced air system works by creating a difference in pressure between the area where the supply registers are located and the area where the returns are located. A home with a typical duct layout has a positive net pressure around the perimeter of the home and a negative net pressure near the center. For example, bedrooms are usually pressurized and the hallway is depressurized.
Higher pressure inside the bedrooms compared to outdoors pushes conditioned inside air out through openings in exterior walls. Outside air is pulled into the central portions of the home where negative pressure dominates. Air commonly comes from the crawlspace, through openings in the floor for plumbing and through the ducts themselves.
Poorly designed duct systems can contribute to the problem because the air flow between supply and return isn’t balanced. (The registers don’t supply the same volume of air that is drawn into the return grille.) Even well designed systems may have only one or two returns. So, closing doors between supplies and the return makes matters worse.
Oikos Green Building Source
Wind forces operate as you might think. On the side facing the wind (windward), positive pressure forces air into the building. On the other side (leeward), wind passing around the house creates negative pressure, which pulls air out of the building. Wind effects vary with local shielding and terrain conditions at the site. A building at an exposed site may have wind-induced air leakage three to four times as large a more protected building.
Studies by the Corbond Corporation
COMPARECLOSED CELLFIBERGLASS CLOSED CELL
68 degrees interior 2x4” wall 2x6” wall 2x6”wall
18 degrees exterior 296 BTU/HR 295 BTU/HR 135 BTU/HR
18 degrees exterior 350 BTU/HR 790 BTU/HR 150 BTU/HR
15 MPH WIND
-25 degrees exterior 576 BTU/HR 763 BTU/HR 273 BTU/HR
-15 degrees exterior 654 BTU/HR 1461 BTU/HR 324 BTU/HR
The last word a contractor wants to hear….MOLD. Mold in buildings is an ambulance chasers dream.
SPEC- Foam insulation will not support mold growth.
Air contains water vapor. When infiltrating or exfiltrating water vapor is cooled to dew point, condensation occurs and vapor will accumulate to form water droplets. Vapor migrates from higher absolute humidity to lower absolute humidity.
Vapor barriers only increase the likely hood of condensation and a provides a perfect breeding ground for MOLD. Only in regions with annual directional vapor drives can a vapor barrier be installed on the proper side. Mixed regions should never have a vapor barrier installed.
SPEC Foam insulation is an excellent air barrier. Gaco Foam eliminates air infiltration, exfiltration, wind wash and heat loads. Because there is isolation between the two temperature gradients, dew point is never reached and water droplets never form.
MOLD CANNOT GROW!!!
Gaco Foam insulation will not rot, corrode, or degrade over time. Mechanical leaks such as windows or roof leaks will not affect the performance of Gaco Foam insulation and will cure to dry after the mechanical breach has been repaired. On occasion Gaco Foam has eliminated water migration into a structure and protected important internal properties.
Foam Supplied By S.P.E.C. Technologies 770-274-9888