slide1 n.
Download
Skip this Video
Loading SlideShow in 5 Seconds..
Feeding Dogs & Cats PowerPoint Presentation
Download Presentation
Feeding Dogs & Cats

Loading in 2 Seconds...

play fullscreen
1 / 81

Feeding Dogs & Cats - PowerPoint PPT Presentation


  • 232 Views
  • Uploaded on

Feeding Dogs & Cats. Chris Ludlow DVM, MS Diplomate, ACVIM (Internal Medicine). Feeding Dogs & Cats. Dietary goals Feeding methods Food dosage Food recommendations Feeding dogs Feeding cats. Dietary Goals. Good quality of life Maximum longevity Disease prevention

loader
I am the owner, or an agent authorized to act on behalf of the owner, of the copyrighted work described.
capcha
Download Presentation

PowerPoint Slideshow about 'Feeding Dogs & Cats' - lane-beard


An Image/Link below is provided (as is) to download presentation

Download Policy: Content on the Website is provided to you AS IS for your information and personal use and may not be sold / licensed / shared on other websites without getting consent from its author.While downloading, if for some reason you are not able to download a presentation, the publisher may have deleted the file from their server.


- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - E N D - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
Presentation Transcript
slide1

Feeding Dogs & Cats

Chris Ludlow DVM, MS

Diplomate, ACVIM (Internal Medicine)

slide2

Feeding Dogs & Cats

  • Dietary goals
  • Feeding methods
  • Food dosage
  • Food recommendations
  • Feeding dogs
  • Feeding cats
slide3

Dietary Goals

  • Good quality of life
  • Maximum longevity
  • Disease prevention
  • Optimized performance
  • Incorporate dietary management into “wellness” programs
slide4

Dietary Goals

  • Conditions with dietary risk factors

-- Obesity

    • FLUTD (cat)
    • Progression of renal failure
    • Developmental orthopedic disease (dog)
    • Dental disease
slide5

Feeding Methods

  • Free-choice feeding
  • Time-restricted meal feeding
  • Food-restricted meal feeding
slide6

Free-Choice Feeding

  • “Ad libitum”
  • Automatic
  • Dry/semi-moist/soft-dry
  • Increased risk for overnutrition(obesity and skeletal disease)
slide7

Time-Restricted Meal Feeding

  • “Free choice” feed for 5-10 min.
  • Dry/semi-moist/soft-dry best
  • Reduced risk for overnutrition?(obesity and skeletal disease)
  • House training easier
slide8

Food-Restricted Meal Feeding

  • Feed a measured amount of food
  • Dry/semi-moist/soft-dry or canned
  • Reduced risk for overnutrition(obesity and skeletal disease)
slide9

Food Dosage Determinations

  • Basis for nutritional management
  • Diagnostic tool
  • Basic skill in nutritional therapy
slide10

Complete and balanced dietFeed to meet animal’s energy requirementRequirements for non-energy nutrients are automatically met

Food Dosage Determinations

slide11

Food Dosage Determination

  • Resting energy requirement (RER)
    • E used by adult at rest
    • Thermoneutral environment
    • Does not support activity, growth, or reproduction
slide12

Food Dosage Determination

RER (kcal/day)

70 Wt kg0.75

30 Wt kg + 70*

*(> 2 kg and < 45 kg)

slide13

Food Dosage Determination

  • Daily energy requirement (DER)
    • RER
    • Temperature regulation
    • Digestion & elimination of nutrients
    • Activity level
    • Lifestage
    • Neuter status
slide14

Effects of Gender on Canine Obesity

50

% of

Dogs

Overweight

30

10

Intact

Neutered

Intact

Neutered

Male

Female

Source: Edney & Smith, Vet Rec 118:391 (1986)

Food Dosage Determination

slide15

Effect of Ambient Temperature

20

90

10

80

Mean

Monthly

Temp(ºC)

Caloric

IntakeKcal/kg/d

0

70

-10

60

-20

50

-30

40

Nov

Feb

May

Aug

Nov

Durer & Hannon Am J Physiol 1962

Food Dosage Determinations

slide16

Energy needs (dog)

Elite

Athletes

Lactation

Activity

8X

Multiples of RER

6X

Birth

Athletes

4X

Weaning

Gestation

Active Pets

2X

House Pets

1X

1.2-1.6

1.6-2

2-4

4-8

Growth

Adult

Food Dosage Determinations

slide17

Food Dosage Determination

  • Calculation steps:
    • Estimate RER (Wt kg)
    • Factor RER to get estimated DER
    • Select specific food & determineenergy density
    • Energy requirement energy density
slide18

Food Dosage Determinations

  • Diet energy density
    • Estimate
    • Manufacturers’ literature
    • Pet food label (voluntary)
    • SACN Appendix L
    • Calculate lab analysis label guarantee
slide19

Food Dosage Determinations

Example: 20 kg neutered adult Bulldog, inactive house pet

  • Calculate RERRER = (30 Wt kg + 70) = [30 (20) + 70) = 670 kcal/day
slide20

Food Dosage Determinations

  • Multiply RER by appropriate factor RER (670 kcal) X 1.4 = 940 kcal/day
  • Select food & determine energy density Adult “light” maintenance food, 295 kcal/cup
slide21

Food Dosage Determinations

Energy requirement energy density940 kcal/day 295 kcal/cup= 3.2 cups/day

slide22

Variation in Energy Requirement for Body Weight Maintenance of Dogs

15

14

13

12

11

10

9

8

7

6

5

4

3

2

1

  • Number of Dogs

45 50 55 60 65 70 75 80 85 90 95 100 5 10 15 20 25 30 35 40 45 50

  • % of average metabolizable energy intake per kg metabolic body weight

Food Dosage Determinations

slide23

Food Recommendations

  • Criteria for normal animals
    • Complete and balanced for intended species
    • Specific-purpose food
    • Meets optimal nutrient profile range
    • Nutrients are digestible and bioavailable
    • Passed a feeding trial for appropriate life stage
    • Marketed by research-oriented, value-added company
    • Personal experience with diet
slide24

Reduced

intake

Function\performance

High

intake

Optimal

range

Deficiency

Toxicity

Minimum requirement

Nutrient Intake

Food Recommendations

slide25

All-purpose

vs Specific-

purpose

foods

slide26

Food Recommendations

  • All-purpose foods:
    • One product satisfies all nutritional needs in all situations
    • Owner feeds and animal eats more or less of the food according to caloric needs
    • Valid concept?
slide27

Life Stages

Body Condition/Use

  • Growth
  • Adult
  • Geriatric
  • Obese-prone adult
  • Athletic/working adult
  • Gestation
  • Lactation

Food Recommendations

  • Specific-purpose foods:
slide28

Feeding Dogs

  • Dogs as omnivores
  • Feeding adult dogs
  • Feeding puppies
slide29

Dogs as Omnivores

  • Taxonomy
  • Oral anatomy
  • Feeding behavior
  • Nutritional/metabolic issues
slide31

Energy Metabolism

4

2

0

Hepatic

Glucokinase

Activity

(U/g liver)

Rat

Pig

Dog

Cat

Soling & Kleineke (1976)

Dogs as Omnivores

slide32

Dogs as Omnivores

  • Starch Digestibility in Dogs

99.4

99.5

98.8

98.5

100

75

%

Digestibility

50

25

0

Corn

Rice

Barley

Oats

Walker, et.al., 1993. J. Animal Sci.

slide33

Young

Adult

Rat

Dog

Fox

Cat

Mink

12 4

12 4

24 17

26 17

31 20

% Protein calories from ideal protein

Dogs as Omnivores

  • Protein Requirement (minimum)
slide34

Feeding Adult Dogs

  • Young to middle age
  • Obese - prone
  • Older
  • Work / athlete
  • Reproductive status
slide36
Energy density

Protein

Fat

Fiber

Calcium & phosphorus

Sodium & chloride

Antioxidants

Food texture

Key Nutritional Factors

Adult Dogs

slide37

Obese-prone

  • adult dogs
slide38
Energy density

Protein

Fat

Fiber

Calcium & phosphorus

Sodium & chloride

Antioxidants

Key Nutritional Factors

Obese prone dogs

slide39
Energy density

Protein

Fat

Fiber

Calcium & phosphorus

Sodium & chloride

Antioxidants

Food texture

Key Nutritional Factors

Older dogs

slide40

Older Dogs

  • More attentive to individual needs
  • Nutrient excesses often occur
  • Antioxidant nutrients
slide41

Effects of age on obesity

50

% of

Dogs

Overweight

30

10

1 - 4

5 - 7

8 - 11

> 12

Age (years)

Source: Mason, Vet Rec 86:612 (1970)

Key Nutritional Factors – Older dogs

slide42

Dry Matter

78.0 81.5 85.6

3.9 5.3 5.3

22.9 30.5 48.7

Digestibility (%)

Dig. Energy (kcal/g)

Protein (%)

Performance

Fatigue

Time (Min.)

Distance (Miles)

103.7 137.6 136.1

15.5 20.6 20.4

Downey et al: JAAHA (1980)

Work/Athlete

  • Food Effects on Canine Performance
slide44
Energy density

Protein

Fat

Soluble carbohydrate

Fiber

Calcium & phosphorus

Sodium & chloride

Antioxidants

Digestibility

Key Nutritional Factors

Reproducing dogs

slide45

Body Weight and Food IntakeDuring Gestation and Lactation

Body

Weight

(kg)

Dry

Food

Intake

(g)

1

3

5

7

9

1

3

5

7

Weeks of Gestation

Weeks of Lactation

Reproducing Dogs

12

800

10

600

11

400

9

200

8

slide46

Reproducing Dogs

  • Feeding bitch or queen during weaning:
    • Day prior = little/no food
    • Weaning day = 1/4 DER
    • Day after = 1/2 DER
    • 2nd day after = 3/4 DER
    • 3rd day after = full DER
slide47

Feeding Puppies

  • Key nutritional factors
  • Feeding recommendations
  • Feeding errors
slide48

Key Nutritional Factors

Puppies

  • Energy density
  • Protein
  • Fat
  • Calcium
  • Phosphorus
  • Antioxidants
  • Digestibility
slide49

Feeding

puppies

slide50

Feeding Recommendations

  • Pups should gain 2-4 g/kg adult wt/day
  • Feed growth/lactation food
  • Wean at 6-7 weeks
  • Free-choice feeding not recommended until 80-90% adult size
slide51

Feeding Errors

  • Excessive food intake risk for:
    • Obesity
    • Developmental orthopedic disease
slide52

Growth Performance

Free Choice

20% less than free choice

Weight

Length

Height

BoneSize

MuscleMass

Kendall-Proc Kal Kan Symp. (1979)

Feeding Errors

slide53

Effects of Overfeeding

200

50

Growth

Rate

(g/day)

Body

Wt @

16 mo

(kg)

100

25

Restricted

Free

Choice

Restricted

Free

Choice

Adapted from Hedhammer/Krook, Cornell Vet, 1974.

Feeding Errors

slide54

Effects of Overfeeding

Inactivity

Skeletal pain

Splayed feet

Angular deformity

Physitis

Wobbler syndrome

Osteochondrosis

Hip dysplasia

Slight hip dysplasia

Free Choice

Group

Restricted

Group

Adapted from Hedhammer/Krook, Cornell Vet, 1974

Feeding Errors

slide55

Feeding Errors

  • Effects of overfeeding
    • Labrador retrievers
    • Fed until 2 years age
    • Free choice group
      • hip dysplasia 16/24
    • Restricted group (25% less food)
      • hip dysplasia 5/24

Kealy, et al JAVMA,1992

slide56

Feeding Errors

  • Effects of excess dietary Ca
    • 5-10 week old Great Dane pups
    • Control group - NRC diet(1.1% Ca, 0.9% P)
    • Treatment group - NRC diet + Ca(3.3% Ca, 0.9% P)
    • Time restricted meal fed, 1 hr, bid

Hazewinkel, et al, JAAHA, 1985

slide57

Feeding Errors

  • Over consumption of Calcium
slide58

Bone remodeling

Bone resorptive cell

Bone/cartilage maturation

Feeding Errors

  • Mechanism - hypercalcitoninism
slide59

Feeding Errors

  • Obesity/skeletal disease
    • Detailed dietary history amount fed feeding method treats/supplements
    • Growth history
    • Consider change in diet or food dosage
slide60

Feeding Cats

  • Cats as carnivores
  • Feeding adult cats
  • Feeding kittens
slide61

Cats as Carnivores

  • Taxonomy
  • Oral anatomy
  • Feeding behavior
  • Nutritional/metabolic
slide62

Cats as Carnivores

Oral anatomy

slide63

Cat

Dog

Hexokinase

Glucokinase

Gluconeogenesis

+ +

+

++ +

Cats as Carnivores

slide64

Protein Metabolism

1000

Hepatic

Deaminase &

Transaminase

Activity(µMol/min/g)

500

0

Low Protein

Food

High Protein

Food

Low Protein

Food

High Protein

Food

Rat

Cat

Cats as Carnivores

slide65

Protein Metabolism

8

Minimum

Ideal

Protein

Requirement

(% dry matter)

4

0

Cat

Dog

Burger et al (1984)Rogers & Morris (1983)

Cats as Carnivores

slide66

Amino acids

    •  Dietary taurine
    • Arginine
    • Methionine & cysteine

Cats as Carnivores

slide67

Other requirements:

    • Linoleic acid arachidonic
    • ß carotene Vitamin A
    • Tryptophan niacin
    • Dietary vitamin D

Cats as Carnivores

slide68

Feeding Adult Cats

  • Adult (young to middle age)
  • Obese - prone
  • Older
  • Reproduction
slide69

Key Nutritional Factors

Adult cats

  • Energy density
  • Protein
  • Fat
  • Calcium & phosphorus
  • Potassium
  • Sodium & chloride
  • Magnesium
  • Antioxidants
  • Average urinary pH
  • Food texture
slide70

Key Nutritional Factors

Obese-prone cats

  • Energy density
  • Protein
  • Fat
  • Fiber
  • Calcium & phosphorus
  • Potassium
  • Sodium & chloride
  • Magnesium
  • Antioxidants
  • Average urinary pH
slide71

Overweight

50

Underweight

40

30

Percent of population

20

10

0

6

0-5

15

11

10

16+

9

14

13

8

7

12

(Age years)

Feeding Adult Cats

slide72

Key Nutritional Factors

Older cats

  • Energy density
  • Protein
  • Fat
  • Calcium & phosphorus
  • Sodium & chloride
  • Magnesium
  • Antioxidants
  • Average urinary pH
  • Food texture
slide73

High

Calcium oxalate uroliths

Struvite uroliths

Frequency

Low

14

1

Age (years)

Feeding Older Cats

slide75

Key Nutritional Factors

Reproducing Cats

  • Energy density
  • Protein
  • Fat
  • Fiber
  • Calcium & phosphorus
  • Potassium
  • Sodium & chloride
  • Magnesium
  • Soluble carbohydrate
  • Taurine
  • Copper
  • Average urinary pH
  • Antioxidants
slide76

Body Weight and Food IntakeDuring Gestation and Lactation

250

5

200

Body

Weight

(kg)

Dry

Food

Intake

(g)

150

4

100

50

3

0

1

3

5

7

9

1

2

3

4

5

6

Weeks of Gestation

Weeks of Lactation

Reproducing Cats

slide77

Key Nutritional Factors

Kittens

  • Sodium & chloride
  • Magnesium
  • Soluble carbohydrate
  • Taurine
  • Average urinary pH
  • Antioxidants
  • Energy density
  • Protein
  • Fat
  • Calcium & phosphorus
  • Potassium
slide78

Feeding Kittens

  • Kittens should gain 50-100 g/week
  • Feed growth/lactation food at 3 weeks
  • Wean kittens at 8-10 weeks
  • Free choice or meal feed (tid)
slide79

Mean ME intake from solid food

Kcal/kg/d

150

100

50

0

1

2

3

4

5

6

7

8

9

10

11

12

Age (Weeks)

J Nutr 1991

Feeding Kittens

slide80

Summary

  • Dietary goals of feeding dogsand cats emphasize health,longevity and quality of life
  • Complete and balanced pet foodsshould have nutrients balancedto energy requirements of the pet
  • Food - restricted meal feeding is the best method to avoid overnutrition
slide81

Summary

  • Calculated food doses, though important, are only estimates
  • All-Purpose foods are not balanced rations for all purposes
  • Individualize food recommendations to the specific pets needs
  • Unlike dogs, cats are obligate carnivores