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History GLE’s: H-1A-M1, M2, M3, M4, M6; H-1C-M1, M2, M3, M4, M5, M6, M7, and M8. 6 th Grade World History Terms! -- Part I: Using Sources, Early man and Early civilizations, and religions. Chronology Timeline : a line or graph that depicts dates and the sequence of events.
Chronology Timeline: a line or graph that depicts dates and the sequence of events.
Method of inquiry: A research method used to conduct a close examination of a matter, in search of the truth! Inquire! Search! Investigate! Plan and Conclude!
Notice that this timeline is entirely in years B.C. – ( it will be BCE in the politically correct, “we must be all inclusive” timelines.) Notice that numbers go DOWN from left to right, and in such cases the number of years between any two events is calculated the same way as with A.D. (or CE) –you subtract the two numbers to get the span of years. To the left is always years “before” and to the right is always years “after”.
Time to lighten up! The cartoon below only stresses the notion that the men had to do the hunting—the women and children did the gathering
In Paleolithic time man had to “follow” the food. Nothing had as yet been domesticated, so they’d settle in one area for as long as the food would last. Generally the men would do the hunting. The women and children gathered from the plants. When the food ran out, they’d move to the next location!
People who study the past have two sources of information. A Primary source is literally getting it “from the horse’s mouth”, in other words—directly from the source/eye witness. Above you see two—a speech by president Teddy Roosevelt and the diary of Christian Freeman, a Union soldier during the Civil War.
Others have to investigate by reading the accounts as written by OTHER people who have also investigated, thus an “indirect” source—such as encyclopedias, textbooks, newspaper articles etc. These are examples of Secondary sources.
Cultivate: To prepare and use land for raising crops: cultivation marked the beginning of the new stone (Neolithic) age.
Domesticate: To tame animals in order to make them useful to people.
Domestication of Plants: When man learned how to use seeds, plant and cultivate plants for food and other purposes. (Note: the domestication of plants and animals allowed man to stay in the same place—thus establish civilizations and cities.)
Nile River: A river in northeastern Africa, it flows from Lake Victoria to the Mediterranean Sea at the Northeastern coast of Egypt. The Nile is the largest river in Africa and the world’s longest river. (over 4,000 miles) The Egyptian civilization developed in this area.
Indus River: a river in southern Asia: flows from Tibet through northern India and Pakistan into the Arabian Sea. The Harappa Civilization developed in this area.
Tigris River: A river that starts in eastern Turkey and flows southeast through Iraq to the Euphrates River. The Sumerian civilization developed in this area.
Euphrates River: A river that begins in Turkey, flows thrgh Syria and Iraq, and empties into the Persian Gulf. The land between the Euphrates and Tigris Rivers is known as MESOPOTAMIA!
Huang River: also Huang He or “Yellow” river in north China that flows east from the Plateau of Tibet. The Han Civilization developed in this area.
Above are four of the earliest civilizations, probably in the order of their development. Notice that all four of them are established along a RIVER! Now ask yourself this question: Why would all early civilizations require a RIVER?
Hint: Not all water is the same. Seas and oceans are “salty”. Salt water KILLS plants and isn’t fit for human consumption. RIVERS have FRESH water, that plants and animals NEED to survive.
Egyptian Pyramids: Huge stone structures built by the ancient Egyptians as royal tombs, having a square base, and four triangular sides.
Hieroglyphics: an Egyptian writing ystem in which pictures or symbols stand for sounds, whole words, or ideas.
Code of Hammurabi: The world’s first system of laws, recorded by Hammurabi, king of Babylonia about 1780 BC
Ziggurat: A huge mud-brick temple built by the ancient Sumerians to worship their gods and godesses.
Above is the Great Pyramid of Cheops (Khufu) in Egypt. Note the triangle sides and the square base. Unlike Sumerian Ziggurats, these pyramids were NOT used for worship temples—but as tombs for the Pharoahs.
Above is an example of Egyptian writing: Hieroglyphics!
To the right you see the great Ziggurat of Ur, in Sumer. These huge structures were temples, not tombs.
Above-Right is a sample of Sumerian writing known as “Cuneiform” that was usually wedge shaped impressions in a hardened clay tablet.
Chinese Dynasties: A line of rulers who belong to the same family and pass control from one generation to the next.
Alexander the Great built the world’s first great empire, capturing most of the civilized world. He loved his horse Bucephalus, and named a city in India after him.
The Sumerians built the first city-states; they each had their own government. Also with a surplus of food, more people could “specialize” and do jobs other than farming—like pottery making, or cloth weaving.
Roman engineering was exceptional. Many of their aqueducts are STILL being used after 2,000 years! They transport water from one place to another.
PaxRomana: Augustus turned out to be a strong leader the Romans needed. Under Augustus, a PaxRomana, or Roman Peace, spread across the empire. This time of peace and unity for the Romans lasted for more than 200 years from 27 B.C. to A.D 180, LONG after Augustus’ death.
Twelve Tables: A group of laws, written down in 451 B.C. and carved on TWELVE BRONZE TABLETS, that became the foundation of Roman Law.