Embedded Systemsan introduction Dr ALI El-Mousa University of Jordan Computer Engineering Department
Content • History of embedded systems • State of the practiceEmbedded Systems Markets • Definitions & Requirements • ....
Elevator history • From ancient times through the Middle Ages, and into the 13th century, man, animal, wind and water power was the driving force behind hoisting devices. • http://www.columbia-elevator.com/info/index.html • http://www.otis.com/aboutotis/elevatorsinfo/0,1361,CLI1,00.html
Elevator history • By 1850 steam and hydraulic elevators had been introduced
Elevator history: OTIS • in 1852 the invention of the world's first safety elevator by Elisha Graves Otis. • “parachute”
OTIS story • The first passenger elevator was installed by Otis in New York in 1857. After Otis' death in 1861, his sons, Charles and Norton, built on his heritage, creating Otis Brothers & Co. in 1867. • By 1873 over 2,000 Otis elevators were in use in office buildings, hotels and department stores across America, and five years later the first Otis hydraulic passenger elevator was installed.
OTIS story • The Era of the Skyscraper followed.... and in 1889 Otis revealed the first successful direct-connected geared electric elevator machines. • In 1898 overseas business had added to the company's growth, and Otis Brothers merged with 14 other elevator entities to form the Otis Elevator Company.
OTIS story • 1903: the gearless traction electric elevator
Elevator control Throughout all these years, Otis innovations in automatic controls have included: • the Signal Control System • Peak Period Control • 1948: the Otis Autotronic System(first elevators without operators) • Multiple Zoning.
Todays added value • Remote elevator monitoring • The control unit has a webserver included • Elevators are networked
The switching system story • Manual switching • Electro-mechanical switching
The switching system story • 1965: first electronic switching central officethe 1 ESS
The switching system story • 1980: Digital switching systems:
Today • Increasing number of services • New services every 2 years => how to quickly adapt massive software??? • Switching system is part of “the internet”
1961: Autonetics D-17 • The first mass-produced embedded system • guidance computer for the Minuteman missile, released in 1961. • It was built from discrete transistor logic and had a hard disk for main memory. • When the Minuteman II went into production in 1966, the D-17 was replaced with a new computer that was the first high-volume use of integrated circuits. This program alone reduced prices on quad NAND gate ICs from $1000/each to $3/each, permitting their use in commercial products. • The crucial design features of the Minuteman computer were that its guidance algorithm could be reprogrammed later in the program, to make the missile more accurate, and the computer could also test the missile, saving cable and connector weight.
1964: Apollo Guidance Computer • The first recognizably modern embedded system • developed by Charles Stark Draper at the MIT Instrumentation Laboratory. • Each flight to the moon had two. They ran the inertial guidance systems of both the command module and LEM. • At the project's inception, the Apollo guidance computer was considered the riskiest item in the Apollo project. • The use of the then new monolithic integrated circuits, to reduce the size and weight, increased this risk.
1960: PDP-1….11.... • Factory automation
PDP-11…RT-11 • First Real-Time Operating Systems • Still alive
Intel 4004 • For calculators and other small systems. • required external memory chips and other external support logic. • More powerful microprocessors, such as the Intel 8080 were developed for military projects, but also sold for other uses.
Mid 70s • 8-bit microprocessors were the norm, but usually needed external memory chips, and logic for decoding and input/output. • prices rapidly fell and more applications adopted small embedded systems in place of (then more common) custom logic designs. • Some of the more visible applications were in instrumentation and expensive devices
Mid 80s • external system components had been integrated into the same chip as the processor. • The result was a dramatic reduction in the size and cost of embedded systems. Such integrated circuits were called microcontrollers rather than microprocessors, and widespread use of embedded systems became feasible. • As the cost of a microcontroller fell below $1, it became feasible to replace expensive analog components such as potentiometers and variable capacitors with digital electronics controlled by a small microcontroller. • By the end of the 80s, embedded systems were the norm rather than the exception for almost all electronics devices, a trend which has continued since.
OS used today • Source: http://www.vdc-corp.com • CMP survey: http://www.embedded.com/showArticle.jhtml?articleID=187203732
Markets • Automotive • Avionics/Aerospace/Defence • Industrial Automation • Telecommunications • Consumer Electronics & Intelligent Homes & Retail (Thin Clients/POS) • Scientific & Medical Equipment • Computer peripherals
Automotive • Electronic control units in chassis systems • Power train electronics • Body electronics/security systems • Driver Information and in-car entertainment • Safety & vehicle dynamics • Information and computing systems • Automatic & remote diagnosis
Some Large Players • DaimlerChrysler: http://www.daimlerchrysler.com • PSA-Peugeot-Citroen: http://www.psa-peugeot-citroen.com • Renault: http://www.renault.com • Audi AG: www.audi.com • Volkswagen AG: www.vw.com • BMW Group: www.bmw.com • Ford Motor Company: www.ford.com • Toyota: www.toyota.com • Opel: www.opel.com • Siemens VDO: www.siemensvdo.com • Bosch: www.bosch.com • Delphi: www.delphi.com • Valeo: www.valeo.com • Johnson Controls: http://www.johnsoncontrols.com/
Avionics/Aerospace/Defense • It includes commercial aircraft, military aircraft, satellite & radar systems. • Command & Control & Communications & Intelligence • Air-traffic control • Telemetry • Avionics & test equipment • Vehicle simulation • Automatic test systems • Missile guidance systems • Vehicle control systems
Dedicated Systems & DIFA • Data Interface Front End Assembly (DIFA)-systeem - Alcatel Bell Space • Dedicated Systems was subcontractor for the DIFA software