English • Arrogant English • Highfalutin, stuck-up, no slang • When you knock on a friend’s door, you say, “It’s me!” • …On the ACT you say, “It is I.”
English Breakdown • ½ section focuses on rhetorical skills • Writing style and organization • ½ section focuses on “English” • Punctuation, sentence structure, basic grammar • 5 passages, 75 questions, 45 minutes • Hustle • About 1.5 minutes per question • You need to know how to use the right rules, not what to call things.
English Breakdown: PLAN • 50 Questions • 30 minutes • About 1.5 minutes per question
English • Pay at least a little attention to content • Skim • Some questions at the end of sections are reading-comprehension type questions • Purpose • Possible Conclusions • Some questions are more doable than others • Box Questions are usually more difficult • If running short on time, save them for last.
Verbs • A compound subject takes a plural verb. • A harp and a violin are beautiful. • Few, Both, Several, and Many are all plural • Each, Every, and Everybody are always singular
Verbs • The second subjectin an either/or orneither/nor construction determines whether the verb is singular or plural. • Neither Kimberly nor her parents are on the cruise ship • Neither her parents or Kimberly is able to afford cruise tickets.
Pronouns • A pronoun must have the same number as the noun it’s replacing • Everybody = Singular • Everybody is on his (not their) best behavior.
Pronouns • A pronoun must have the same gender as the noun it’s replacing • The ewe is slowly making her way home from the pasture.
Pronouns • A pronoun must have clarity • You must be able to tell which noun the pronoun is replacing • Non-Example: Matthew asked Franklin to pick up his laundry off the floor. • Matthew, disgusted at seeing Franklin’s laundry on the floor, picked it up.
What You Need to Know • A pronoun following any form of the verb be is going to be in the subjective form. • It sounds weird, but is correct • It is I • It was he • It could be they • It was she who… • This is she • It was they. I, YOU, HE, SHE, IT, WE, THEY SUBJECTIVE PRONOUNS
Diction • Who is a subject and does the action. • Who wants to study over the weekend? • Whom is an object and receives the action. • I don’t know whom to ask to be my study buddy. If you can substitute “HE” for the who/whom, then use WHO. If you can substitute “HIM” for the who/whom, then use WHOM.
Adjective and Adverbs • Adjectives modify nouns or pronouns • An adverb typically modifies a verb and answers the question “How?” • May end in –ly
Adjective and Adverbs • Place adjective and adverbs as close as possible to the noun or pronoun it is modifying. • Non-example: Nancy and Frank left the neighborhood they had lived in for 10 years reluctantly. • Nancy and Frank reluctantly left the neighborhood they had lived in for 10 years.
Parallelism • Objects in a series must be in similar form. • Non-Example: I like jogging, hiking, and to swim. • I like jogging, hiking and swimming.
Comparisons • Use –er to compare 2 items • Use –est to compare 3 items • He is uglier that John. (2 items)
Diction • Affect means to influence or concern • Effect means to cause or result • A good ACT score will positively ________ you chances of admission to college. • A good ACT score will have a positive _______ on your chances for admission.
Diction • Between (note the tw) compares two things • I can’t choose between the black dress and (not or) the red dress! • Among compares more than two • I go crazy when I have to choose among the eye shadows at the Clinique counter!
Diction: good vs. well • Good is an adjective that modifies a noun. • You’re doing a good job learning grammar rules! • Well is an adverb that answers the question how. • You study very well.
Diction • To lie is to recline. • I like to lie in my recliner after school. • To lay is to place. • Lay the book on the table.
A little extra! • Don’t place if and would in the same clause. • If I would have studied more… • Replace “would” with “had”… • If I had studied more… • Had I studied more…
ACT English Practice • English Practice Handout • 5 Questions: 5 minutes • http://www.actstudent.org/sampletest/english/eng_01.html