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Arnheim’s Principles of Athletic Training 12 th Edition

Arnheim’s Principles of Athletic Training 12 th Edition

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Arnheim’s Principles of Athletic Training 12 th Edition

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  1. Arnheim’s Principles of Athletic Training 12th Edition William E. Prentice Daniel D. Arnheim

  2. Arnheim’s Principles of Athletic Training 12th EditionPowerPoint Presentations Jason Scibek ATC University of Michigan

  3. Chapter 1: The Athletic Trainer and the Sports Medicine Team

  4. Sports Medicine • Broad field of medical practices related to physical activity and sport • Involves a number of specialties involving active populations • Typically classified as relating to performance enhancement or injury care and management

  5. Sports Medicine Human Performance Injury Management Exercise Physiology Practice of Medicine Biomechanics Sports Physical Therapy Sport Psychology Athletic Training Sports Nutrition Sports Massage

  6. Sports Medicine • Where have we been? • Where are we now? • Where are we going?

  7. Sports Medicine & Athletic Training • Traditional setting of practice included colleges and secondary schools • Dealing exclusively with an athletic population • Today certified athletic trainers (ATC) work in a variety of settings • Professional sports, hospitals, clinics, industrial settings, the military, equipment sales, physician extenders

  8. With the evolution of the profession a number of milestones have been achieved • Recognition of ATC’s as healthcare providers • Increased diversity of practice settings • Passage of practice acts • Third party reimbursement for athletic trainers • Constant revision and reform of athletic training education

  9. Growth of Professional Sports Medicine Organizations • International Federation of Sports Medicine (1928) • American Academy of Family Physicians (1947) • National Athletic Trainers Association (1950) • American College of Sports Medicine (1954) • American Orthopaedic Society for Sports Medicine (1972) • National Strength and Conditioning Association (1978) • American Academy of Pediatrics, Sports Committee (1979) • Sports Physical Therapy Section of APTA (1981) • NCAA Committee on Competitive Safeguards and Medical Aspects of Sports (1985)

  10. International Federation of Sports Medicine • Federation Internationale de Medecine Sportive (FIMS) • Principal purpose to promote the study and development of sports medicine throughout the world • Made up of national sports medicine associations of over 100 countries • Organization is multidisciplinary, including many disciplines that are concerned with physically active individuals

  11. American Academy of Family Physicians • To promote and maintain high quality standards for family doctors who are providing continuing comprehensive health care to the public • It is a medical association of more than 93,000 members • Many team physicians are members of this organization

  12. National Athletic Trainers’ Association • To enhance the quality of health care for athletes and those engaged in physical activity, and to advance the profession of athletic training through education and research in the prevention, evaluation, management and rehabilitation of injuries • The NATA now has 30,000 members

  13. American College of Sports Medicine • Patterned after FIMS (Umbrella Organization) • Interested in the study of all aspects of sports • Membership composed of medical doctors, doctors of philosophy, physical educators, athletic trainers, coaches, exercise physiologists, biomechanists, and others interested in sports • 18,000 members

  14. American Orthopaedic Society for Sports Medicine • To encourage and support scientific research in orthopaedic sports medicine and to develop methods for safer, more productive and enjoyable fitness programs and sports participation • Members receive specialized training in sports medicine, surgical procedures, injury prevention and rehabilitation • 1,200 members are orthopaedic surgeons and allied health professionals

  15. National Strength and Conditioning Association • To facilitate a professional exchange of ideas in strength development as it relates to the improvement of athletic performance and fitness and to enhance, enlighten, and advance the field of strength and conditioning • 14,500 strength and conditioning coaches, personal trainers, exercise physiologists, athletic trainers, researchers, educators, sport coaches, physical therapists, business owners, exercise instructors and fitness directors • Accredited certification programs • Certified Strength and Conditioning Specialist, (CSCS) • NSCA Certified Personal Trainer (NSCA-CPT)

  16. American Academy of Pediatrics, Sports Committee • Dedicated to providing the general pediatrician and pediatric sub-specialist with an understanding of the basic principles of sports medicine and fitness and providing a forum for the discussion of related issues • To educate all physicians, especially pediatricians, about the special needs of children who participate in sports

  17. American Physical Therapy Association, Sports Physical Therapy Section • To provide a forum to establish collegial relations between physical therapists, physical therapist assistants, and physical therapy students interested in sports physical therapy • Promotes prevention, recognition, treatment and rehabilitation of injuries in an athletic and physically active population • Provides educational opportunities through sponsorship of continuing education programs and publications

  18. NCAA Committee on Competitive Safeguards and Medical Aspects of Sports • Collects and develops pertinent information regarding desirable training methods, prevention and treatment of sports injuries, and utilization of sound safety measures • Disseminates information and adopts recommended policies and guidelines designed to further the above objectives • Supervises drug-education and drug-testing programs

  19. National Academy of Sports Medicine • Founded by physicians, physical therapists and fitness professionals • Focuses on the development, refinement and implementation of educational programs for fitness, performance and sports medicine professionals • Offer a variety of certifications (fitness and performance)

  20. Other Health Related Organizations • Various aspects of health related professions have also become involved • Dentistry, podiatry, chiropractic medicine • National, state and local organizations have also emerged • Focus on athletic health and safety • All bodies have worked towards the reduction of injury and illness in sport

  21. Sports Medicine Journals • A variety of publications exist, providing excellent resources to the sports medicine community • Journal of Athletic Training • Journal of Sports Rehabilitation • International Journal of Sports Medicine • Physician and Sports Medicine • Clinics in Sports Medicine • American Journal of Sports Medicine • Numerous journals are available

  22. The Athletic Trainer • Charged with injury prevention and health care provision for the athlete • Athletic trainer deals with the athlete and injury from its inception until the athlete returns to full competition

  23. Roles and Responsibilities: Performance Domains • Prevention of athletic injuries • Clinical evaluation and diagnosis • Immediate care of injuries • Treatment, rehabilitation and reconditioning of athletic injuries • Health care administration • Professional responsibilities

  24. Education Council • In 1998 the Education Council was established to dictate the course of the educational preparation for the student athletic trainer • Focus has shifted to competency based education at the entry level • Education Council has significantly expanded and reorganized the clinical competencies and proficiencies

  25. Athletic Training Education Competencies • Twelve Content Areas • Risk management • Pathology of injuries and illnesses • Assessment and evaluation • Acute care • Pharmacological aspects of injury and illness • Therapeutic modalities

  26. Athletic Training Education Competencies • Therapeutic exercise • General medical conditions and disabilities • Nutritional aspects of injury and illnesses • Psychosocial intervention and referral • Organization and administration • Professional responsibilities

  27. Personal Qualities of the Athletic Trainer • Stamina and the ability to adapt • Empathy • Sense of humor • Communication • Intellectual curiosity • Ethical practice

  28. Athletic Trainer and the Athlete • Major concern on the part of the ATC should be the athlete • All decisions impact the athlete • The injured athlete must always be informed • Be made aware of the how, when and why that dictates the course of injury rehabilitation

  29. The athlete must be educated about injury prevention and management • Instructions should be provided regarding training and conditioning • Inform the athlete to listen to his/her body in order to prevent injuries

  30. Athletic Trainer and Parents • ATC must keep parents informed, particularly in the secondary school setting • Injury management and prevention • The parents decision regarding healthcare must be a primary consideration • Insurance plans may dictate care • Selection of physician

  31. ATC, physician and coaches must be aware and inform parents of Health Insurance Portability and Accountability Act (HIPAA) • Regulates dissemination of health information • Protects patient’s privacy and limits the people who could gain access to medical records

  32. Responsibilities of the Team Physician • Athletic trainer works under direct supervision of physician • Physician assumes a number of roles • Serves to advise and supervise ATC • Physician and ATC must be able to work together • Have similar philosophical opinions regarding injury management • Helps to minimize discrepancies and inconsistencies

  33. Roles and Responsibilities • Compiling medical histories and conducting physical exams • Pre-participation screening • Diagnosing injury • Deciding on disqualifications • Decisions regarding athlete’s ability to participate based on medical knowledge and psychophysiological demands of sport

  34. Attending practice and games • Commitment to sports and athlete • Potentially serve as the academic program medical director • Coordinates and guides medical aspects of program • Provides input into educational content and provides programmatic instruction

  35. Responsibilities of the Coach • Must understand specific role of all individuals involved with the team • Coach must clearly understand the limits of their ability to function as a healthcare provider in their respective state • Directly responsible for injury prevention • Athlete must go through appropriate conditioning program

  36. Coach must be aware of risks associated with sport • Provide appropriate training and equipment • Must have knowledge of CPR and first aid • Must have thorough knowledge of skills, techniques and environmental factors associated with sport • Develop good working relationships with staff, including athletic trainers • Must be a cooperative relationship

  37. Referring the Athlete to Other Personnel • ATC must be aware of available medical and non-medical personnel • Athlete may require special treatment outside of the “traditional” sports medicine team • Must be aware of community based services and various insurance plans • Typically the ATC and team physician will consult on the particular matter and refer accordingly

  38. Physicians Dentist Podiatrist Nurse Physicians Assistant Physical Therapist Athletic Trainer Massage Therapist Ophthalmologist Dermatologist Gynecologist Exercise Physiologist Biomechanist Nutritionist Sport Psychologist Coaches Strength & Conditioning Specialist Social Worker Neurologist Osteopath Psychiatrist The Players on the Sports Medicine Team

  39. Employment Settings for the Athletic Trainer • Employment opportunities are becoming increasingly diverse • Dramatic transformation since 1950 • Due largely in part to the efforts of the NATA • Started out primarily in the collegiate setting, progressed to high schools and are now found primarily in hospital and clinic settings

  40. Settings include: • Secondary schools • Colleges and universities • Professional teams • Sports medicine clinics • Corporate/Industrial settings • Military • Physician extenders • Medical supply & equipment sales • Research • Administration

  41. Treating the Physically Active • Consists of athletic, recreational or competitive activities • Requires physical skills and utilizes strength, power, endurance, speed, flexibility, range of motion and agility

  42. The Adolescent Athlete • Focuses on organized competition • A number of sociological issues are involved • How old or when should a child begin training? • Skeletal maturity presents some challenges with respect to healthcare • Physically and emotional adolescents can not be managed the same way as adults

  43. The Aging Athlete • Physiological and performance capability changes overtime • Function will increase and decrease depending on point in lifecycle • May be the result of both biological and sociological effects • High levels of physiological function can be maintained through an active lifestyle • The impact on long-term health benefits have been documented • beginning an exercise program

  44. Exercise program should be gradual and progressive as long as no unusual signs or symptoms develop • Individuals over age 40 should have a physical and exercise testing before engaging in an exercise program

  45. Recognition and Accreditation of the Athletic Trainer as an Allied Health Professional • June 1990- AMA officially recognized athletic training as an allied health profession • Committee on Allied Health Education and Accreditation (CAHEA) was charged with responsibility of developing essentials and guidelines for academic programs to use in preparation of individuals for entry into profession through the Joint Review Committee on Athletic Training (JRC-AT)

  46. June 1994-CAHEA dissolved and replaced immediately by Commission on Accreditation of Allied Health Education Programs (CAAHEP) • Recognized as an accreditation agency for allied health education programs by the U.S. Department of Education • Entry level college and university athletic training education programs at both undergraduate and graduate levels are now accredited by CAAHEP

  47. In 2003, JRC-AT became an independent accrediting agency • JRC-AT would accredit athletic training education programs without involvement of CAAHEP • JRC-AT will seek affiliation with CHEA once it is fully independent • CHEA is a private nonprofit national organization that coordinates accreditation activity in the United States • Recognition by CHEA will put JRC-AT on the same level as other national accreditors, such as CAAHEP • CAAHEP accreditation will be discontinued in 2006; JRC-AT will begin in 2007

  48. Effects of CAAHEP accreditation are not limited to educational aspects • In the future, this recognition may potentially affect regulatory legislation, the practice of athletic training in nontraditional settings, and insurance considerations • Recognition will continue to be a positive step in the development of the athletic training profession

  49. Accredited Athletic Training Education Programs • Entry-level athletic training education programs • Undergraduate and graduate • Advanced graduate athletic training education programs • Designed for individuals that are already certified ATC’s

  50. Specialty Certifications • NATA is in the process of developing specialty certifications • Further enhance professional development • Aid in expanding scope of practice • Specialty certifications build on entry level knowledge