Classical Music Higher Music
Click here Listen to this piece of music from the Classical period and answer the following questions: • How would you describe the tonality? • What is the time signature? • What technique are the strings using at the beginning?
Classical Music - Overview • 1750-1810 • Three main composers Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart (1756-1791) Ludwig Van Beethoven (1770-1827) Joseph Haydn (1732-1809)
Investigation Task You will split in to groups of 3. Each member of the group will research a different composer from the Classical Period: Mozart, Beethoven and Haydn. You will have ten minutes to find out the following information about each composer • Where each composer was born and died • What genres/styles of music they composed • Any famous pieces they composed • What instruments were available during the Classical Period? Once you have collated this information, you will be asked to share the information you have gathered with other groups. (see attached instruction sheets)
Eine Kleine NachtmusikSerenade for String Quartet • Serenades were often meant for performances outdoors. • Scored mainly for wind instruments • Mozart writes his for string quartet – what is a string quartet?
Viola Violin 1 Violin 2 Cello
Eine Kleine Nachtmusik – 1st Movement • This is in Sonata Form • Sonata form is divided into three sections • Exposition – 2 themes • Development – ‘develops’ these themes • Recapitulation – plays the two themes again • (Usually ends with a coda)
Follow the music and answer these questions in your jotter • What key is this in? • Insert in bars 6 and 8 where there is a trill • Complete the notes and rhythm in bars 16-17 Click here
Classical Orchestra • The orchestra was finally established in the Classical period • 4 sections • Strings • Woodwind • Brass • Percussion
By the end of the century, the woodwind became a self-contained section, like the strings • Composers started to use wind instruments for simple changes of tone colour • The horns helped to fill in the harmony once supplied by the harpsichord • The trumpets and kettledrums were added to nosier passages
Sonata • A sonata is a piece of music written for solo instrument, or solo instrument with piano accompaniment
Listen to the following sonata by Beethoven. Do you know what it is called? • Now listen again and answer the following questions while following the score provided:
Beethoven – Moonlight Sonata (1st Movement) • What notes are to be played sharp in this extract? • How would you describe the dynamics at the beginning? • What word would describe the rhythm at the end of bar 5? • What chord do the notes in bar 1 outline? • Explain the term “sempre pp e senza sordino”in bar 1. • What form is a typical first movement of a sonata in?
Alberti Bass • What is an alberti bass? • Your teacher will demonstrate an alberti bass on the piano. • As a class, you are now going to learn to play Sonata in C by Mozart. What concepts can you find?
Mozart Piano Sonata in C Major, K. 545 Choose three features which are present in the music.
Symphony • This is played by a full symphony orchestra. • 1st movement – sonata form
Symphony • This is played by a full symphony orchestra. • 1st movement – sonata form • 2nd movement – usually slow, often in ternary form
Symphony • This is played by a full symphony orchestra. • 1st movement – sonata form • 2nd movement – usually slow, often in ternary form • 3rd movement – (added at the end of the Classical period) usually in the form of a minuet and trio
Symphony • This is played by a full symphony orchestra. • 1st movement – sonata form • 2nd movement – usually slow, often in ternary form • 3rd movement – (added at the end of the Classical period) usually in the form of a minuet and trio • 4th movement – fast and can be in various forms, but often in rondo form
Mozart Symphony No. 5 In this question you will hear instrumental music. A guide to the music is shown below. You are required to complete this guide by inserting music concepts. There will now be a pause of 30 seconds to allow you to read through the question. The music will be played three times, with a pause of 20 seconds between playings. You will then have a further 30 seconds to complete your answer. In the first two playings, a voice will help guide you through the music. There is no voice in the third playing. Here is the music for the first time. Here is the music for the second time. Here is the music for the third time.
Concerto • What is a concerto? • The concerto is a piece for solo instrument with orchestral accompaniment. • It is usually in 3 movements, although in the Romantic period, an extra movement was added. • There is a constant dialogue between soloist and orchestra.
Listen to the following concerto from the Classical Period and follow the score before answer the questions: • What is the key of the piece? • Write the time signature in the correct place. • Your teacher will now highlight concepts using your score. • Would you like to hear something a bit different?
Vocal Music Click here • Opera was still a popular vocal form of music in the Classical period. • Listen to this extract from Mozart’s opera The Magic Flute and tick one box to describe the form and state the type of voice. Recitative Aria Chorus The voice is a/an ________________
Listen to this version of the same Aria. How would you compare this to the previous version? • Florence Foster Jenkins
Mass • The Mass was discussed earlier in the Renaissance period. • The Mass continued to be popular in the Classical period. • What is a Mass?
It was a sacred choral work with text taken from the Roman Catholic liturgy. • It had 5 sections. • KYRIE GLORIA CREDO SANCTUS AND AGNUS DEI. • It was originally written for church worship but in later years became a large scale work for voices and orchestra.
Listen to Lacrimosa from Mozart’s Requiem. • What is the time signature? • How would you describe the tonality? • What cadence is used at the very end?