LEADERSHIP Submitted to : Mr.Hussain Khorasani Submitted by : Taqdees Tahir (BB/852) Huma Siddiqui (BB/783) Muhammad Shahid (BB/805) Nasir Saleem (BB/809) Omair Ahsan (BB/808)
Leadership • Leadership can be defined as: “The art or process of influencing people so that they will strive willingly and enthusiastically toward the achievement of group goals.”
TYPES OF LEADER IN ORGANIZATION • FORMAL LEADER • INFORMAL LEADER
LEADERSHIP BASIC Leadership has been defined as: • An integral part of the group process. • As an influence process, • As the initiation of structure, and • As the instrument of goal achievement.
Group phenomenon • Influence • Goal directed • Hierarchy
INGREDIENTS OF LEADERSHIP • The ability to use power effectively and in a responsible manner • The ability to comprehend that human beings have different motivation force at different times and in different situations • The ability to inspire • The ability to act in a manner that will develop a climate conductive to responding to and arousing motivations
THREE APPROACHES TO UNDERSTANDING LEADERSHIP The three general approaches have been used to understand leadership are: • Trait Approach • Behavior Approach • Contingency Approach
1) EARLY TRAIT APPROACH: • From 1900s to 1940s, most leadership studies focused on identifying leadership characteristics or traits. • Trait approach aimed at identifying individual characteristics such as demographic factor or personality traits. 2) BEHAVIOR APPROACH: • Leadership behavior concerned with defining and organizing the task to help followers achieve the goals.
Leadership behavior that aimed at creating mutual trust and respect with followers. 3)CONTIGENCY APPROACH: • Strong-willed and domineering more effective then one who is soft-spoken and allows participation.
LEADERSHIP TRAITS • Theorists explain leadership ability in terms of inherent characteristics or qualities that people posses to different degrees. • Employees provided four traits in over 50% of their responses:honest, competent, forward looking, and inspiring.
LEADERSHIP STYLES • The leadership styles are: • Autocratic • Participative or democratic • Free-rein 1) AUTOCRATIC LEADERSHIP: • The autocratic leader command and expect complains is dogmatic and positive, and leads by the ability to withhold or give reward and punishment.
2) DEMOCRATIC OR PARTICIPATIVE LEADERSHIP: • The democratic or participative, leaders consults with subordinates on proposed action and decision. 3)FREE-REIN LEADERSHIP: • The free-rein leader uses his or her power very little, if at all, giving subordinate a high degree of independence in their operations.
AUTOCRATIC LEADER FOLLOWER FOLLOWER FOLLOWER DEMOCRATICLEADER FOLLOWER FOLLOWER FOLLOWER FREE-REIN LEADER FOLLOWER FOLLOWER FOLLOWER THE FLOW OF INFLUENCE WITH THREE LEADERSHIP STYLES
CONTINGENCY THEORY OF LEADERSHIP • Fred Fiedler developed the first comprehensive leadership contingency model in the 1960s. • basic premise is that the match between the leader styles and the leadership situation. • The theory holds that people become leaders not only because the attributes of their personalities but also because of their situational factors and the interaction between leaders and group members.
The following are the three situational factors: 1)Position power 2)Task structure 3)Leader-member relation 1)POSITION POWER: • contingency model, refers to the leaders official power and influence over subordinates to hire, fire, reward, or punish.
2)TASK STRUCTURE: • It refers to the degree of clarity a task, the quality of performance can be more easily controlled and group member can be held more definitely responsible for performance. 3)LEADER-MEMBER RELATION: • It refers to cohesion of the group and the quality of interaction between the leader and follower and among group member. • Leadership performance depends as much on the organization as it depends on the leaders own attribute.
THE PATH-GOAL THEORY • The path-goal theory suggests that the main function of the leader is to clarify and set goals with subordinates, help them find the best path for achieving the goals, and remove obstacles. • Leader behavior categories into four groups: 1) Supportive leadership 2) Participative leadership 3) Instrumental leadership 4) Achievement-oriented leadership
1) SUPPORTIVE LEADERSHIP: • Supportive leadership behavior gives consideration to the need of subordinate, shows a concern for their well being, and creates a pleasant organizational climate. 2) PARTICIPATIVE LEADERSHIP: • Participative leadership allows subordinates to influence the decision of their superiors and can result in increased motivation
3)INSTRUMENTAL LEADERSHIP: • Instrumental leadership gives subordinates rather specific guidance and clarify that is expected of them; this includes aspect of planning, organizing, coordinating, and controlling by the leader. 4)ACHIEVEMENT-ORIENTED LEADERSHIP: • Achievement-oriented leadership involved setting challenging goals, seeking improvement of performance.
LEADER MEMBER EXCHANGE THEORY • The leader member exchange theory describes the different kinds of relationships b/w a leader and a follower and describes what the leader and the follower give to and receive back from the relationship. • This model focuses on the leader-follower dyad---(a dyad is two individuals regarded as a pair. • The leader develops with the subordinate a special relationship characterized by mutual trust,commitment and involvement.
The relationship b/w a leader and subordinates can be classified as in-group or out-group relationship. • Research suggesst that it is desireable for leaders to develop special relationships with their subordinates,for subordinates who are in the in-group are loyal to their leaders and perform a high level then the subordinates in the out-group
NEW TOPICS IN LEADERSHIP RESEARCH • TRANSFORMATIONAL LEADERSHIP • CHARISMATIC LEADER • LEADER MOOD • GENDER AND LEADERSHIP
CONCLUSION • Leadership required creating shared visions of future objectives, determining how they can be obtained, convincing other to join the effort to succeed.