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Afghanistan. Lesson starter: What were the reasons behind Détente in the 1970s? (4marks). Today we will understand the reasons behind the Soviet invasion of Afghanistan. Background. The Brezhnev Doctrine had stated that the USSR would intervene to maintain Communism in countries

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Afghanistan


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    1. Afghanistan Lesson starter: What were the reasons behind Détente in the 1970s? (4marks) Today we will understand the reasons behind the Soviet invasion of Afghanistan

    2. Background • The Brezhnev Doctrine had stated that the USSR would intervene to maintain Communism in countries • It was widely criticised • This did not stop the USSR invading Afghanistan in 1979 Brezhnev

    3. The countries share a border

    4. 1979 – Muslim groups attack new Communist Government in Afghan • New government is non-Muslim and pro-Soviet • USSR also had large Muslim population living close to Afghan • USSR worried that Muslim ideas might affect USSR

    5. Dec 1979 – Brezhnev phones Jimmy Carter and tells him USSR troops have been ‘invited’ into Afghanistan • Soviet troops already in Afghan • KGB (Soviet Security) attack palace in Kabul and assassinate president H. Amin • NY Day 1980 new government set up by USSR headed by Karmal

    6. Worldwide criticism of the invasion including by Muslim countries Pakistan and Iran • 80, 000 troops by Feb 1980 • USA boycotted 1980 Olympic Games in Moscow • Soviet troops were supposed to back up Afghan army and oppose Muslim groups • Problem 1 – Afghan army poor • Problem 2 – rebel groups the mujaheddin • Rebels given weapons by China and USA who opposed Soviet Invasion

    7. Pakistani President and Jimmy Carter

    8. More problems for the Soviets… • One again, rebels using guerrilla tactics (like vietcong) • US ban grain exports to USSR until they leave • Muslim nations now hate USSR (Muslims in USSR may revolt) • High Soviet casualties

    9. In 1985 new Soviet leader Mikhail Gorbachev decided to withdraw troops

    10. Consequences of Afghan Invasion • Million Afghans dead • 20,000 Soviet troops lost • ½ of Afghan population refugees • Farmland mostly destroyed • Damaged USSR reputation • Threatened Détente

    11. Mujaheddin

    12. Osama bin Laden, 1980

    13. Soviet troops leaving Afghanistan 1985