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Chapter 6. Phrases . Chapter 6: Grammar Safari. Find a ‘real-life’ complex verb phrase Identify all of the components of the VP Auxillaries (modal, tense, HAVE, BE) & Main Draw out the tree to show us how it works

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chapter 6

Chapter 6

Phrases

chapter 6 grammar safari
Chapter 6: Grammar Safari
  • Find a ‘real-life’ complex verb phrase
    • Identify all of the components of the VP
      • Auxillaries (modal, tense, HAVE, BE) & Main
      • Draw out the tree to show us how it works
    • You will need information from the later parts of the chapter to finish this one…
  • Example
    • I would have been going to see the movie.
    • + VP tree (to be discussed…)
subject predicate division
Subject & Predicate Division?

The androokers plurked and urkled beside the broofled lumphet.

A B C

D

get some exercise
Get Some Exercise
  • Underline the subjects below
    • A lion ate an antelope under the tree.
    • Students have always dreaded tests.
    • Usually, people find Bill Cosby funny.
  • Test yourself
    • Substitute a pronoun for the underlined section in each sentence above.
subj predicate division
Subj / Predicate Division?
  • Identify Subj/Pred. in the sentences
  • Use tag, Y/N question or substitution tests
    • The trees that covered the mountains were turning colors: yellow, red & purple.

A B

C D

subj predicate division6
Subj / Predicate Division?
  • Identify Subj/Pred. in the sentences
  • Use tag, Y/N question or substitution tests
    • The test, which I had been dreading for weeks, turned out to be simple after all.

A B

C D

phrase types constituency
Phrase types & Constituency
  • Constituent
    • Words that hang together (in Phrases)
  • Common Phrase Types
    • NP the lamp
    • VP might have been turned (on)
    • ADJP (the) red and white polka dot (lamp)
    • ADVP (the lamp shone) extremely brightly
exercise
Exercise
  • Divide and label: NP, MVP, ADJP, ADVP
    • The mermaids lived under the sea.
    • They were very happy.
    • Sailors told mermaid stories to their kids.
parse the sentence
Parse the Sentence…

Subject, Predicate; NP, MVP, ADJP, ADVP (& PP, Rel.P)

It suddenly occurred to Bob that the origin of life debate might run longer than expected.

overview principle verbal inflections

Reinforcing the inflections reviewed in Chpt 3…

Overview - Principle Verbal Inflections
  • Base form {-∞}
    • Follows “to” or “MODAL”
    • No ‘time’ implications
  • Simple Present Tense {-s}
    • ‘NOW’ (Prototypically)
  • Simple Past Tense {-ed}
    • ‘BEFORE’
  • Progressive Form {-ing}
    • ‘ONGOING’ (AKA Pres. Participle)
  • Participle Form {-en}
    • ‘COMPLETED (AKA Past Participle)@ UNKNOWN TIME’

Indicators:

| current time

temporal focus

work it out
Work It Out…
  • Ignore book’s directions.
  • Answer questions below using the exercise sentences
  • Exercise 6.4  Page 165
  • Answer these questions:
    • What verb form follows BE?
    • What verb form follows HAVE?
    • What verb form follows a modal?
    • Which verb (or helping verb) shows tense?1st, 2nd, or 3rd…NOTE: “Tense” in the ‘formal’ sense…
    • What’s funky about tense with a modal?
    • In what order do AUX verbs appear? 1st, 2nd, 3rd…

see previous slide…

base form
Base form {-∞}
  • It might _____ (something/good/well).
  • She wants to _____ (something/good).

(find 1 below)

simple present tense s
Simple Present Tense {-s}
  • He _____ (something/good/well) sometimes.
simple present tense
Simple Present Tense?
  • Looks like the “Dissolve” transition in my presentation needs adjusting

How many present tense verbs?

  • 1
  • 2
  • 3
  • 4
simple past tense ed
Simple Past Tense {-ed}
  • He _____ (something/good/well) then.
simple past tense
Simple Past Tense?

The boy below is a space alien who traded places with Calvin…

How many“pasts”?

  • 1
  • 2
  • 3
  • 4
progressive form be ing aka present participle aspect
Progressive Form [be + -ing](AKA Present Participle Aspect)
  • They are _____ (something/good/well) now.
participle form have en aka present participle aspect
Participle Form [have + -en](AKA Present Participle Aspect)
  • We have [always] _____ (something/good/well).
participial

How many “participles”?

  • 1
  • 2
  • 3
  • 4
Participial?

Chuck should never have tried to teach Chester to drive.

any questions

Any Questions…

…before we move on?

auxiliary verbs
Auxiliary Verbs
  • AKA “helping Verbs”
  • HAVE
  • BE May also be ‘MAIN’ verbs
  • DO
  • Modals
    • Never ‘true verb’
    • CAN, WILL, SHALL, MAY, Must, Ought

}

identify the aux main verbs
Identify the AUX& MAINVerbs
  • Did someone say we should be leaving?
  • I have been wanting to leave since 8:30.
  • This must be the longest party of the year.
  • Our host will not do this again.

NOTE: Each clause has its own verbs…

For more practice look at Exercise 5.4

remember the rules
Remember the Rules?
  • -ing form comes after BE
  • -en form comes after HAVE
  • ∞(base)form comes after a Modal
  • 1st verb in the MVP shows the tense
  • Modals’ tense ≠ time information
  • Order of optional Auxiliaries:
    • (Modal+ -∞)
    • (HAVE + -en)
    • (BE + -ing)
main verb phrase structure
Main Verb Phrase Structure

MVP

AUX MV

TENSE (Modal+[∞]) (HAVE + [-en])(BE + [-ing])

(past or(Participle)(Progressive)present)

putting the tree to work
Putting the Tree to Work…

MVP

Past + Drive

AUX MV

TENSE (Modal+[∞]) (HAVE + [-en]) (BE + [-ing])(past or(Participle)(Progressive)present)

Past

Drive

Drove

putting the tree to work32
Putting the Tree to Work…

MVP

Past + HAVE + -en + drivePast + BE + -ing + drive

Past + SHALL + BE + -ing + drive

AUX MV

TENSE (Modal+[∞]) (HAVE + [-en]) (BE + (-ing])

(past or(Participle)(Progressive)present)

slide33

Parse the Verb Phrase

Hints:

‘Never’ is movable…

Infinitives masquerade as other parts of speech…

Chuck should never have tried to teach his dog to drive.

get some exercise 6 5
Get Some Exercise (6.5)
  • Write the following as normal English sentences:
    • I + past + come + to class today
    • Concerned students + pres + will + BE + [-ing] + study
    • Jo + past + Shall +[∞] + HAVE + [-en] + BE +[-ing] + eat
get some more exercise 6 7
Get Some MORE Exercise (6.7)

Make sentences using the verb parts:

TenseModal+∞HAVE+enBE+ingMV

  • Joe past will ---- B+ing study
  • Joe pres ---- H+en ---- eat
  • Joe past may H+en B+ing talk
get some exercise 6 6
Get Some Exercise (6.6)

Identify the verb parts: Tense, Modal {+∞}, Have {+en}, BE {+ing}, Main Verb

  • All of the runners finished the race.
  • Fred is being friendly.
  • George should have been watching TV.
think about the tense
Think about the Tense…
  • After this we research for more information to go with what we already knew…
  • Any errors?
  • Any suggestions for revision?
error safari

Where is the error? – Choose the line #

  • 1
  • 2
  • 3
  • 4
Error Safari

1. Find the Error

2. Explain it

3. Fix it

  • The Picture Exchange Communication
  • System is useful to start language skills
  • as well as providing those students
  • who not talk a way of communication.
any questions40

Any Questions…

…before we move on?

passive voice
Passive Voice…
  • Takes an Object makes it a Subject
    • Called “voice” -- acts like ‘formal tense’
    • Rhetorical purpose…
    • Confusability…
    • Dave’s take…

See pages 242 ff..

oldest tree in versailles pulled down after 324 years
Oldest tree in Versailles pulled down after 324 years
    • Wed Feb 9,11:28 AM ETScience - AFP
  • VERSAILLES, France (AFP) - The oldest tree in the grounds of the palace of Versailles -- Marie-Antoinette's oak -- was pulled down more than 320 years after it was planted.
same idea different focus

Form 1

Form 2

Meaning 1

Same Idea – Different Focus

A groundskeeper cut down Marie-Antoinette's oak

Marie Antoinette's oakwas cut down by a groundskeeper

The tree is gone

mvp structure w passive
MVP Structure w/Passive

MVP

AUX MV

TENSE (Modal+[-∞]) (HAVE + [-en]) (BE +[-ing]) (BE +[-en]) (Past or(Participle)(Progressive) (Passive)

Present)

active passive steps

boys ate | pizza

pizza was eaten

The

The

the

by

boys

the

Active  Passive Steps
  • The original D.O. becomes the subject
  • BE + en is added to the verb (also “GET + en”)
  • The original Subj is placed in a BY phrase*** Optional ***
passive tree part i
Passive Tree – Part I

S

NP VP

NP

Art N V Art N

The boys ate the pizza

+ BY

passive tree part ii
Passive Tree – Part II

S

NP VP

NP

Art N Aux MV X

The pizza was eaten

Optional BY phrasegoes here…

passive
Passive

BE + -en

OR

GET + -en

descriptive passive rules
Descriptive Passive Rules
  • A verb with no auxiliary is active
  • When the main verb ends in –ing, it must be active
  • If an –en main verb is preceded bya form of HAVE, it must be active
  • If the main verb is not transitive (MVtr), it must be active
  • If an –en main verb is preceded by a form of BE (or GET), it is passive
passive50
Passive?

1 2 3 4

  • 1
  • 2
  • 3
  • 4
reasons to use passive
Reasons to use Passive
  • Don’t know the identity of the subject
  • Know identity – don’t want to tell
  • Identity is very obvious from context
  • Identity isn’t important
  • Focus on the object/result of an activity
applying the rules active or passive
Applying the rules: Active or Passive?
  • The ball was thrown by Philip
  • I finally finished my homework
  • Amy’s car was stolen during the night
  • I have eaten too much again
  • We were studying for the exam
find the error
Find the Error
  • Within these dialects are words that are acceptable to be spoken, but are not acceptable to be written.
  • What has the author done wrong?
  • What has been done right?
wrapping it up
Wrapping It Up
  • Review Exercises (pg. 190 – 192)
  • Practical Applications (p. 192 – 193)