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  1. 21 Kuwait 7 Lebanon 20Syria 3 Morocco 22 Bahrain 8 Palestine 5 Tunisia 19 Iraq 23 Qatar 2 W. Sahara 18 Jordan 24 UAE 4 Algeria 6 Libya 9 Egypt 17 Saudi Arabia 1 Mauritania 16 Oman 10 Eritrea 15 Yemen 11 Sudan 12 Djibouti 14 Somalia 13 Comoros Islands

  2. 21 Kuwait 7 Lebanon 20 Syria 3 Morocco 22 Bahrain 8 Palestine 5 Tunisia 19 Iraq 23 Qatar 2 W. Sahara 18 Jordan 24 UAE 4 Algeria 6 Libya 9 Egypt 17 Saudi Arabia 1 Mauritania 16 Oman 10 Eritrea 15 Yemen 11 Sudan 12 Djibouti 14 Somalia Ethiopia 13 Comoros Islands The Arab World is made up of 22 countries. Understand that Eritrea and Western Sahara are not fully considered Arab countries. Eritrea is an observer in the Arab League.

  3. TOPIC #2: Physical Characteristics of the Arab World OBJECTIVES: 3. Identify the location of the Arab World. 4. Understand some of the geographical features of the Arab World. KD ANSWERS: 1. Latitude and longitude coordinates of the Arab World: (2) Between latitude 2° south and 37° north of the equator. Between longitude 17° west and 60° east of the Greenwich meridian. 2. Arab countries in: Africa - 10 Asia - 12 3. Two reasons why the Arab World is considered important: (2) 1) It is centrally located with trade routes linking Asia, East Africa and Europe 2) It is the cradle (foundation) of three major religions – Islam, Christianity and Judaism 3) It is the world’s leading exporter of oil

  4. KD: 4. Fill in this paragraph and paste into your exercise book. p. 15 - 18 The three basic surface features of the Arab World include plains, plateaux and mountains. The two types of plains are Coastal Plains and Flurial Plains. Kuwait rests on a costal plain. Plateaux are flat or nearly flat areas of high ground which have steep sides and stand above the surrounding area. At the center of the Arabian Peninsula is the Najd plateaux. There are four main mountain ranges in the Arab World. The Atlas Mountains extend across Morocco, Algeria and Tunisia. The Oman Mountains include JebelAkhdar (the Green Mountains) which is over 3,000 metres tall. In Western Saudi Arabia you can find the Asir and Al Hejaz Mountains, both over 2,500 metres high. The Lebanese Mountains are famous for snow-skiing and reach over 3,000 metres.

  5. TOPIC #2: Physical Characteristics of the Arab World OBJECTIVES: 3. Identify the location of the Arab World. and 4. Understand some of the geographical features of the Arab World. SKILL DEVELOPMENT ANSWERS: 1. Highest elevation: (2) Toubkal at approximately 4,000 metres. 2. Width of the Arab World: (1) Approximately 7,900 kilometres 3. Estimate Kuwait’s elevation. Explain why you chose that number. (3) 0 - 200 metres Kuwait lies along the Arabian Gulf, is mostly flat and is well-below the 1,000 metre mark on the scale.

  6. Tropical TOPIC #2: Physical Characteristics of the Arab World OBJECTIVES: 5. Describe the climate conditions in the Arab World. and 6. Identify the types of vegetation in the Arab world. KD ANSWERS: 2. Three factors effecting climate in the Arab World: (3) Latitude – distance from the equator The balance between land and water Altitude – elevation from sea level 3. Match each of the climate zones to its description. (3) MediterraneanDesertTropical ______________ It is very hot and rainy throughout the year. Found in Sudan and Somalia. ______________ It covers most of the Arab World and is characterised by high temperatures with limited amounts of rainfall. ______________ It has warm and rainy winters and found in North Africa and Lebanon. Desert Mediterranean

  7. Tropical Rain Forest – include ebony, teak and mahogany trees • Mixed Forest – includes cedar and cork trees Forest - 9% • Savanna – includes lush elephant grass on which cattle and buffalo feed • Temperate – includes flowering herbs for sheep and goats TOPIC #2: Physical Characteristics of the Arab World OBJECTIVES: 5. Describe the climate conditions in the Arab World. and 6. Identify the types of vegetation in the Arab world. KD ANSWERS: 4. Vegetation is the type of plants growing in a particular place. Three types of vegetation in the Arab World. Grassland – 18% Desert 70% + • Has limited grasses, scrub and cactus

  8. grouping organised together their society, technology culture TOPIC #3: The First Civilizations of the Arab World OBJECTIVES: 7. Define civilisation. and 8. Summarise steps for developing civilisation. KD ANSWERS: 1. Civilisation is the large of people to live and work in a creative way to develop and . 2. First farmers survived: (5) They did everything themselves. Farmed Made own clothes Made simple tools Defended themselves

  9. TOPIC #3: The First Civilizations of the Arab World OBJECTIVES: 7. Define civilisation. and 8. Summarise steps for developing civilisation. KD ANSWERS: 3. Problems that encouraged people to cooperate and settle together: (2) Water resources Development of agriculture 4. TIME - areas specialised: (4) Craftsmen Builders Wood and metal workers Potters Weavers

  10. 5,513 TOPIC #3: The First Civilizations of the Arab World OBJECTIVES: 7. Define civilisation. and 8. Summarise steps for developing civilisation. KD ANSWERS: 6. 3500 BC was years ago. 7. Modern countries of the Fertile Crescent: (5) Jordan, Palestine, Lebanon, Syria and Iraq 8. Modern countries of the Levant (Bilad Ash Sham): (4) Jordan, Palestine, Lebanon and Syria 9. Important civilisations developed in and near the Fertile Crescent: (6) 3500 BC – Mesopotamia (Iraq) 3000 BC – Egypt India Crete China Dilmun (Bahrain)

  11. TOPIC #4: Civilizations of the Fertile Crescent – Sumerians OBJECTIVE: 9. List the civilisations of Mesopotamia. and 10. Describe how the Sumerians lived. KNOWLEDGE DEVELOPMENT: 1. What is Mesopotamia? (4) p. 25 2. Who started the first civilization in Mesopotamia? Why did they settle near the rivers (3) p. 26 3. Look at the map on p. 26. How many cities settled in Mesopotamia? List five (5) 4. If the answer is, people organized to dig irrigation systems, raise towns and villages above water level and built protective mud walls … what is a question you can ask? (2) p. 26 5. What became the most important Sumerian city-state? (1) p. 26

  12. TOPIC #4: Civilizations of the Fertile Crescent – Sumerians OBJECTIVE: 9. List the civilisations of Mesopotamia. and 10. Describe how the Sumerians lived. KD ANSWERS: 1. Mesopotamia: (4) A Greek word, which means ‘between the rivers’ Given to what is now Iraq (Bilad Al Rafedean) The two rivers are the Tigris and Euphrates 2. First civilization in Mesopotamia: (3) The Sumerians Settled near rivers: The soil was very fertile to grow crops. 3. Cities settled in Mesopotamia – 9 Ebla Mari Babylon Uruk Ur Tell Brak Nineveh Akkad Ashur

  13. TOPIC #4: Civilizations of the Fertile Crescent – Sumerians OBJECTIVE: 9. List the civilisations of Mesopotamia. and 10. Describe how the Sumerians lived. KD ANSWERS: 4. If the answer is, people organized to dig irrigation systems, raise towns and villages above water level and built protective mud walls … what is a question you can ask? (2) How did people deal with the destructive floods in Mesopotamia? How did people protect their settlements and cultivation in Mesopotamia? How did the people of Mesopotamia protect themselves from violent, Spring floods? 5. Most important Sumerian city-state: (1) Ur

  14. TOPIC #4: Civilizations of the Fertile Crescent – Sumerians OBJECTIVE: 9. List the civilisations of Mesopotamia. and 10. Describe how the Sumerians lived. KD ANSWERS: 6. First type of writing used by Sumerians: (3) Simple pictures called pictographs from 3200 BC 7. If the answer is, an alphabet of wedge-shaped marks which were used to form words … what is a question you can ask? (2) What is cuneiform script? 8. Story of Noah’s Ark written by the Sumerians: (2) The epic story of Gilgamesh, ruler of Uruk.

  15. God of Air Goddess of Love and War TOPIC #4: Civilizations of the Fertile Crescent – Sumerians OBJECTIVE: 9. List the civilisations of Mesopotamia. and 10. Describe how the Sumerians lived. KD ANSWERS: 10. Dominated life in the flat lands of Sumeria: (4) Wind, rain, sun and farming 11. Sumerians worshipped many Gods. Identify the following: (4) p. 28 Enil – Ishtar – Enki – Anu - God of Water Father of the Gods

  16. temples Ziggurats sun-dried clay bricks metres TOPIC #4: Civilizations of the Fertile Crescent – Sumerians OBJECTIVE: 9. List the civilisations of Mesopotamia. and 10. Describe how the Sumerians lived. KD ANSWERS: 12. Finish these sentences : The Sumerians devoted great efforts to building huge . These temples called were massive structures made out of and were as tall as up to 30 high. 13. Two inventions by Sumerians in science and technology: (2) Wheel Chariots Castings in bronze Glass Decimals and Geometry of Circles Hours into minutes and seconds http://ancienthistory.mrdonn.org/Ideas.html

  17. TOPIC #4: Civilizations of the Fertile Crescent – Sumerians OBJECTIVE: 9. List the civilisations of Mesopotamia. and 10. Describe how the Sumerians lived. KD ANSWERS: 14. Six places that were linked by trading (bartering) with the Sumerians: (6) Anatolia (Turkey) Cyprus Oman India Egypt Levant Afghanistan 15. Items manufactured in well-organised factories and exported: (6) Textiles FurnitureJewelleryPottery Copper and Bronze objects 16. If the answer is, mathematics, biology, astrology, economics and farming … what is a question you can ask? (2) What subjects were studied in Sumerian Schools by 2500 BC?

  18. Settled along the Tigris and Euphrates, irrigating and farming • City-States developed in Mesopotamia • Writing was invented to record information – pictographs and cuneiform TOPIC #4: Civilizations of the Fertile Crescent – Sumerians OBJECTIVE: 9. List the civilisations of Mesopotamia. and 10. Describe how the Sumerians lived. KD ANSWERS: 17. Summarise the table from p. 30 into your exercise book. Include the title. (5) • Organised Trade Routes – from India to Anatolia and Africa • Great contributions to science and technology

  19. TOPIC #4: Civilizations of the Fertile Crescent – Sumerians OBJECTIVE: 9. List the civilisations of Mesopotamia. and 10. Describe how the Sumerians lived. AFL - EXTENSION ACTIVITY: Draw a Ziggurat into your Exercise Book. http://ancienthistory.mrdonn.org/Ideas.html

  20. TOPIC #5: Civilizationsof the Fertile Crescent – Akkadians and Babylonians OBJECTIVE: 11. Describe the importance of the Akkadians and Babylonians. KNOWLEDGE DEVELOPMENT: 1. Who were the first Semites (people from SW Asia) to influence the development of civilisation? (1) p. 30 2. What Akkadian King conquered all the Sumerian city-states in 2400 BC? (1) p. 30 3. _______ and ________ are cities that grew from the Amorites. (2) p.31 4. Fill in the paragraph: (8) p. 31 In 1800 BC Babylon rose to power. Its greatest and wisest ruler was ________. His code of laws is famous and was carved onto a stone tablet. They are the most complete, consisting of ______ articles dealing with __________, ______________, __________________ and ____________________. Some of the punishments, however, seem harsh including ______________. Today this stone tablet rests in the __________ Museum, Paris.

  21. Babylon Assyria TOPIC #5: Civilizations of the Fertile Crescent – Akkadians and Babylonians OBJECTIVE: 11. Describe the importance of the Akkadians and Babylonians. KD ANSWERS: 1. First Semites to influence development of civilisation: (1) Akkadians 2. Akkadian King that conquered all the Sumerian city-states in 2400 BC: (1) Sargon 3. and are cities that grew from the Amorites. (2)

  22. Hammurabi. 282 wages, divorce, fees commerce. drowning or cutting off hands. TOPIC #5: Civilizations of the Fertile Crescent – Akkadians and Babylonians OBJECTIVE: 11. Describe the importance of the Akkadians and Babylonians. KD ANSWERS: 4. Fill in the paragraph: (8) In 1800 BC Babylon rose to power. Its greatest and wisest ruler was His code of laws is famous and was carved onto a stone tablet. They are the most complete, consisting of articles dealing with , and Some of the punishments, however, seem harsh including Today this stone tablet rests in the Museum, Paris. Louvre

  23. http://kids.britannica.com/elementary/art-89384

  24. This is a clay tablet with Hammurabi's Code of Laws inscribed. Law is written codes and policies that the people who belong to this society must follow. If you did not it was punishable and it was a way of maintaining authority. One reason why these laws were invented is very clear. It was obviously to keep society fair and maintain peace and balance. However, they helped maintain authority and social classes in society. The invention of Law has affected all societies in some way and will continue to do so throughout history. http://period20910.wikispaces.com/Laws+and+Bureaucracies+in+Mesopitaimia

  25. Moon Sun. TOPIC #5: Civilizationsof the Fertile Crescent – Akkadians and Babylonians OBJECTIVE: 11. Describe the importance of the Akkadians and Babylonians. KD ANSWERS: 5. Science of Babylonians that predicted the future by watching the stars: (3) Astrology By 800 BC they were able to predict eclipses of the and movement of the 6. Babylonians are considered good mathematicians: (4) They had multiplication tables, reciprocals, and standard weights and measures. They were able to solve quadratic equations and Algebra. They invented measurement systems based on the number 60, for minutes and seconds.

  26. TOPIC #6: Civilizations of the Fertile Crescent – Invaders, Assyrians and Chaldeans OBJECTIVE: 12. Identify the groups that emerged after Hammurabi. KNOWLEDGE DEVELOPMENT: 1. Who were considered the ‘Invaders’ from Anatolia (Turkey) and developed advanced military technology using two-wheeled chariots? (2) p. 32 2. Who linked the Levant and Egypt by 1674 BC after conquering Northern Egypt? (1) p. 32 3. Who is being described: ____________ They originated (came from) from Anatolia and created an empire in about 1400 BC from the Arabian Gulf to the Mediterranean Sea and the Nile Delta. They adopted many of the inventions from Mesopotamia. 4. Who is being described: ____________ After chasing the Hyksos out, they occupied the Levant for 300 years and fought a series of battles with the Hittites until a peace treaty was signed in 1250 BC.

  27. Hittites TOPIC #6: Civilizations of the Fertile Crescent – Invaders, Assyrians and Chaldeans OBJECTIVE: 12. Identify the groups that emerged after Hammurabi. KD ANSWERS: 1. Considered the ‘Invaders’ from Anatolia with advanced military technology: (2) Hittites and Hurrians 2. Linked the Levant and Egypt by 1674 BC after conquering Northern Egypt: (1) Hyksos 3. Who is being described: ____________ They originated (came from) from Anatolia and created an empire in about 1400 BC from the Arabian Gulf to the Mediterranean Sea and the Nile Delta. They adopted many of the inventions from Mesopotamia. 4. Who is being described: ____________ After chasing the Hyksos out, they occupied the Levant for 300 years and fought a series of battles with the Hittites until a peace treaty was signed in 1250 BC. Egyptians

  28. Assyrians Tiglath Pileser III army TOPIC #6: Civilizations of the Fertile Crescent – Invaders, Assyrians and Chaldeans OBJECTIVE: 12. Identify the groups that emerged after Hammurabi. KD ANSWERS: 5. Copy and fill in the paragraph: The Hittites replaced the Babylonians as rulers of Sumeria. The collapse of the Hittites in 1200 BC allowed the rise of the . Their greatest king was whose empire in 700 BC extended from the Arabian Gulf through Mesopotamia and Syria to the Mediterranean Sea. This empire had a powerful and all its men were forced to serve in it. (3) 6. The Assyrians lost control of their empire as the Aryans were becoming powerful in The Aryans divided into the: (3) The Medes in the West The Persians in the East Iran.

  29. Babylonian Nebuchadnezzar Suez Hanging TOPIC #6: Civilizations of the Fertile Crescent – Invaders, Assyrians and Chaldeans OBJECTIVE: 12. Identify the groups that emerged after Hammurabi. KD ANSWERS: 7. Copy and fill in the paragraph: The Chaldeans were considered the second __________ Empire. Its great Kings was ________________, who extended the empire from the Euphrates River to the _____ Canal. Babylon was built up as a magnificent city, famous for its _________Gardens. The second Babylonian Empire was eventually weakened by disputes and fell to the hands of the _________, joining Anatolia, Persia, ______________, _______ and ______. (8) Persians Mesopotamia Levant Egypt

  30. TOPIC #7: Civilizations of the Levant (Bilad Ash Sham) – Arameans and Phoenicians OBJECTIVE: 13. Describe how the groups from the Levant became important. KNOWLEDGE DEVELOPMENT: 1. What Semitic group set up small kingdoms throughout central and northern Syria? (2) p. 34 2. Damascus grew at the same time as _________. What two holy books describe the wars between Damascus and Jerusalem? (3) p.34 3. What made the city of Ugarit important? (4) p. 34 4. What Semitic group settled along on the coast of the Levant by 1000 BC? What did they become famous for? (3) p. 34 5. Who did the Phoenicians trade with? (4) p. 34 6. How did the Egyptians change seafaring(traveling by sea) by 3500 BC? (1) p. 35 7. How did the Phoenicians change seafaring by 1400 BC? (2) p. 35

  31. Jerusalem TOPIC #7: Civilizations of the Levant (Bilad Ash Sham) – Arameans and Phoenicians OBJECTIVE: 13. Describe how the groups from the Levant became important. KD ANSWERS: 1. Semitic group that set up kingdoms throughout Syria: (2) Arameans, with their capital at Damascus 2. Damascus grew at the same time as __________. Two holy books describing wars between Damascus and Jerusalem: (3) Hebrew Bible and the Christian Old Testament 3. Ugarit became important: (4) It had a rich culture with 10 languages. It had five forms of writing, including alphabetic cuneiform. It had a complex legal system (laws) that protected traders. It was a center of trading because it had good relations with the Egyptians and Hittites.

  32. TOPIC #7: Civilizations of the Levant (Bilad Ash Sham) – Arameans and Phoenicians OBJECTIVE: 13. Describe how the groups from the Levant became important. KD ANSWERS: 4. Semitic group that settled along on the coast of the Levant by 1000 BC: (1) Phoenicians Famous for: (2) Seafaring (traveling by sea) Trading 5. Phoenicians traded with: (4) Egyptians Mediterranean countries Spain Carthage Maybe even the British Isles

  33. TOPIC #7: Civilizations of the Levant (Bilad Ash Sham) – Arameans and Phoenicians OBJECTIVE: 13. Describe how the groups from the Levant became important. KD ANSWERS: 6. Egyptians changed seafaring (traveling by sea) by 3500 BC: (1) They started to put sails on their ships. Secrets of Archaeology: Sailing with the Phoenicians 7. Phoenicians changed seafaring by 1400 BC: (2) They built wide, smoothly rounded sailing cargo ships for trading.

  34. Phoenician Trade Routes

  35. TOPIC #3: The First Civilizationsof the Arab World

  36. Ancient Egypt Notice the divisions: Lower Egypt and Upper Egypt http://bellsouthpwp.net/k/e/ken5sar/

  37. Pyramids Pharaohs TOPIC #8: Ancient Egypt OBJECTIVE: 14. Give examples of how Ancient Egyptians lived. KD ANSWERS: 1. The Egyptian civilization left the most spectacular remains of the ancient world including, the __________, the Sphinx, other tombs of the _________and the finest art and craftsmanship. (2) 2. Two kingdoms developed in Egypt by about 3500 BC: (2) Upper Egypt – located in the south Lower Egypt – located in the north 3. Answer is, the capital was at Memphis: (2) Where did Menes make the capital of Egypt in 3200 BC? Where did Menes make the capital when he united Egypt in 3200 BC?

  38. TOPIC #8: Ancient Egypt OBJECTIVE: 14. Give examples of how Ancient Egyptians lived. KD ANSWERS: 4. Nile was so important to Egypt’s growth: (4) It supplied water to a desert land. Its flooding brought layers of rich mud with excellent soil for farming. People learned to store water in canals and irrigation systems. Rich agriculture fed the population and freed men to be craftsmen. 5. Answer is, hieroglyphics: (2) What type of Egyptian writing used 700 pictures representing words? What type of Egyptian writing began about 3000 BC and used 700 pictures as words? 6. What stone was discovered in 1822 and made Egyptian writing clear? (2) p.37 Rosetta Stone, which was deciphered (translated) by French scholar (specialist) Jean Francois Champollion.

  39. Ra TOPIC #8: Ancient Egypt OBJECTIVE: 14. Give examples of how Ancient Egyptians lived. KD ANSWERS: 7. Egyptians had over 2,000 Gods and ____, the Sun God, was the most important. (1) 8. Ancient Egyptians think of their Kings: (3) Believed to be lesser Gods. Believed to control the Nile and agriculture. Believed to be omniscient (all-knowing). 9. Egyptians were among the finest craftsman in the ancient world. The ________ are perhaps their greatest buildings. The first stone tomb was the stepped pyramid of _______ built at Saqqara near __________ in ______ BC. The greatest pyramid is that of ________at Giza. (5) Pyramids Zoser Memphis 2600 Cheops

  40. Tutankhamen was an Egyptian pharaoh who ruled from 1332 BC – 1323 BC, during the period of Egyptian history known as the New Kingdom. He is popularly referred to as King Tut. TOPIC #8: Ancient Egypt OBJECTIVE: 14. Give examples of how Ancient Egyptians lived. KD ANSWERS: 10. Famous tomb discovered by Howard Carter in 1922: (2) Tomb of the ‘Boy King’, Tutankhamen. Howard Carter and Tutankhamun's Tomb http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=7ZWB5-aXMXQ&noredirect=1 11. To prepare for life after death, Egyptians mummified(embalmed) bodies with _____ or soda. Internal _______ were removed, which helped doctors learn about ________ (science of the bodily structure in humans). (3) salt organs anatomy

  41. 12 moon River Nile banks bricks TOPIC #8: Ancient Egypt OBJECTIVE: 14. Give examples of how Ancient Egyptians lived. KD ANSWERS: 12. Egyptians observed the stars and created a calendar with ____ months, based on phases of the ______. Today we call that a lunar calendar. (2) 13. Most cities and towns were built near the ______________. Towns were crowded and people lived in areas depending on their wealth or status (position in society). Houses were made of mud ______ and sparsely (thin or not including much) furnished. (2)

  42. TOPIC #8: Ancient Egypt OBJECTIVE: 14. Give examples of how Ancient Egyptians lived. KD ANSWERS: 14. Decline (decay or failure). Groups conquered ancient Egypt: (4) Assyrians – 671 BC Persians – 521 BC Greeks and alexander the Great – 332 BC Romans – AD 30 15. Famous woman was the last ruler of Alexandria: (1) Cleopatra

  43. TOPIC #11: Pre-Islamic Civilisations of Arabia OBJECTIVE: 15. Give examples of how people adapted to life along the Arabian Coast. KD ANSWERS: 1. Earliest evidence of settlement in Arabia: (3) From stone tools of hunters by 6500 BC. On the coast of Qatar and the edge of the Rhub Al Khali from 6000 BC. 2. Ancient Dilmun Civilisation: (2) On the mainland of Bahrain and to Failaka Island. 3. Dilmuns traded with: (5) Sumer, India, Oman, Akkadia and Assyria.

  44. TOPIC #11: Pre-Islamic Civilisations of Arabia OBJECTIVE: 15. Give examples of how people adapted to life along the Arabian Coast. KD ANSWERS: 4. Evidence that the Dilmuns had an advanced civilisation: (4) It had trade routes. It was the centre for copper smelting. It used balances with standard weights. It practiced primitive (very basic or simple) dentistry. 5. No evidence of Dilmun writing: (1) Papyrus could not survive the humid climate of Bahrain.

  45. TOPIC #11: Pre-Islamic Civilisations of Arabia OBJECTIVE: 15. Give examples of how people adapted to life along the Arabian Coast. KD ANSWERS: 6. Two of main achievements in Yemen and Oman: (4) Built irrigation systems and the world’s first large dam, Ma’rib. Built large palaces and temples. 7. Incense – It is gum from the bark of trees that gives off a sweet smell. Yemen was so important: (2) It created a group of kingdoms along the incense trade routes on the western edge of the Arabian Peninsula. 8. Important cities on the trade route from Arabia to the Med Sea and Europe: (3) Petra in Jordan, Mecca and Medina.

  46. TOPIC #11: Pre-Islamic Civilisations of Arabia OBJECTIVE: 15. Give examples of how people adapted to life along the Arabian Coast. The site of the great Dam of Ma'rib, also called the Dam of Arim is south-west of the ancient city of Ma'rib, once the capital of the ancient Kingdom of Saba’. The Kingdom of Saba' was a prosperous trading nation, with control of the incense and spice routes in Arabia and Abyssinia. The dam was built to capture the periodic monsoon rains which fall on the nearby mountains and to irrigate the land around the city.

  47. TOPIC #11: Pre-Islamic Civilisations of Arabia OBJECTIVE: 15. Give examples of how people adapted to life along the Arabian Coast. KD ANSWERS: 9. Islam changed Arabia: (3) United warring tribes. Abolished social classes and racial discrimination. Introduced religious tolerance toward Christians and Jews.

  48. Al Mamum Al Rhazi Ibn Sinna (Avincenna) TOPIC #11: Pre-Islamic Civilisations of Arabia OBJECTIVE: 15. Give examples of how people adapted to life along the Arabian Coast. KNOWLEDGE DEVELOPMENT: 10. Who is being described: (6) p. 44 – 46 ____________ He built an observatory to study the Astronomy and Mathematics. He also ordered the main writings of the Greeks to be translated into Arabic. ____________ He discovered small pox and wrote books on anatomy and children’s diseases. ____________ He wrote the Canon of Medicine, an encyclopedia of all medical knowledge used across the world until the 17thCentury. ____________ He made major developments in Geometry and invented Algebra. ____________ He developed the Greek Astrolabe - to tell time and find direction using the stars. ____________ He discovered that the eye sees light from the sun reflecting off things around us. He is known as the father of Optics. Al Khawarizmy Al Khawarizmi Ibn Al Haytham

  49. Al Azhar Mosque Dome of the Rock TOPIC #11: Pre-Islamic Civilisations of Arabia OBJECTIVE: 15. Give examples of how people adapted to life along the Arabian Coast. KNOWLEDGE DEVELOPMENT: 11. What is being described: (5) p. 44 – 46 _________________ Place in Cairo where the first university in the world started in AD 978. _________________ Built in Jerusalem in AD 691, it is the first Islamic building with a dome. _________________ Famous Islamic building constructed in Spain between AD 1258 - 1354 showcasing (showing off) Moorish architecture. The Red Citadel Of Granada

  50. TOPIC #12: Resources of the Arab World - Agriculture OBJECTIVE: 16. Describe the importance of agriculture in the Arab World. KD ANSWERS: 1. Main occupation (job) for most people in Arab countries: p. 49 (1) Agriculture 2. Three types of fresh water supplies in the AW: p. 49 – 50 (3) Rivers Regular rainfall Groundwater