JERUSALEM • I wept until my tears were dry • I prayed until the candles flickered • I knelt until the floor creaked • I asked about Mohammed and Christ • Oh Jerusalem, the fragrance of prophets • The shortest path between earth and sky • Oh Jerusalem, the citadel of laws • A beautiful child with fingers charred • and downcast eyes • You are the shady oasis passed by the Prophet
Your streets are melancholy • Your minarets are mourning • You, the young maiden dressed in black • Who rings the bells in the Nativity • On Saturday morning? • Who brings toys for the children • On Christmas eve? • Oh Jerusalem, the city of sorrow • A big tear wandering in the eye • Who will halt the aggression • On you, the pearl of religions? • Who will wash your bloody walls? • Who will safeguard the Bible? • Who will rescue the Quran? • Who will save Christ? • Who will save man?
Oh Jerusalem my town • Oh Jerusalem my love • Tomorrow the lemon trees will blossom • And the olive trees will rejoice • Your eyes will dance • The migrant pigeons will return • To your sacred roofs • And your children will play again • And fathers and sons will meet • On your rosy hills • My town • The town of peace and olives
3000 BC : The Canaanites (an Arab people) were the earliest known inhabitants of Palestine. They became urbanized and lived in city-states, one of which was Jericho . They developed an alphabet. Later, the Hebrews, a tribe from Mesopotamia settled in the area. Palestine's 1) location at the center of routes linking three continents made it the meeting place for religious and cultural influences from Egypt, Syria, Mesopotamia, and Asia Minor. It was also the 2)natural battleground for the great powers of the region and subject to domination by bordering empiresbeginning with Egypt in the 3d millennium BC.
2000 BC : Egyptian control and Canaaniteindependence were constantly challenged by invaders such as the Amorites, Hittites, and Hurrians. These invaders, however, were defeated by the Egyptians and absorbed by the Canaanites, who at that time may have numbered about 200,000 people. Under control of the Egyptians and actually taken to Egypt as slaves, the Hebrews- led by Moses eventually escape from Egypt seeking a return to their homeland as promised by the One God in whom they believed.
Under control of the Egyptians and actually taken to Egypt as slaves, the Hebrews- led by Moses eventually escape from Egypt seeking a return to their homeland as promised by the One God in whom they believed.
Biblical References to “Eretz Israel” According to Genesis, 15:18 – “from the river of Egypt to the great river, the river Euphrates”
Jews anomadic people till about 1250 BCE-start the conquest of Canaan 1230 BC : Joshua and the Hebrews conquered parts of Canaan. The conquerors settled in the hill country, but they were unable to conquer all of the territory.
1125 BC : The Israelites, a confederation of Hebrew tribes, finally defeated the Canaanites but found the struggle with the Philistines more difficult . Philistines had established an independent state on the southern coast and controlled the Canaanite town of Jerusalem.1050 BC : Philistines with superiority in military organization and using iron weapons, severely defeat the Israelites.
1000 BC : David, Israel's great king, finally defeated the Philistines, and they eventually assimilated with the Canaanites . The unity of Israel enabled David to establish a large independent state, with its capital at Jerusalem,
922 BC : Under David's son and successor, Solomon, Israel enjoyed peace and prosperity. The First Temple (synagogue or house of worship) was established c. 950 BCE by King Solomon in Jerusalem, but at his death in 922 BC the kingdom was divided into Israel in the north and Judah in the south . 722-721 BC : When nearby empires resumed their expansion, the divided Israelites could no longer maintain their independence . Israel fell to Assyria.
586 BC : Judah was conquered by Babylonia, which destroyed Jerusalem and exiled most of the Jews living there. Nebuchadnezzar entered Jerusalem. The Temple was sacked and set fire to, and razed to the ground. The Royal Palace and all the great houses were destroyed, the population carried off in chains to Babylon. And they lamented on their long march into exile.
539 BC : Cyrus the Great of Persia conquered Babylonia and he permitted the Jews to return to Judea, a district of Palestine. Under Persian rule the Jews were allowed considerable autonomy. They rebuilt the walls of Jerusalem and codified the Mosaic law, the Torah, which became the code of social life and religious observance. The Jews were bound to a universal God.
333 BC : Persian domination of Palestine was replaced by Greek rule when Alexander the Great of Macedonia took the region. Alexander's successors, the Ptolemies of Egypt and the Seleucids of Syria , continued to rule the country . The Seleucids tried to impose Hellenistic (Greek) culture and religion on the population. 141-63 BC : Jews revolted under the Maccabees (Mattathias & 5 sons and the miracle of 8 lights) and set up an independent state.132-35 BC : Jewish revolts erupted, numerous 1) Jews were killed, 2) many were sold into slavery, and 3) the rest were not allowed to visit Jerusalem.
Judea isrenamed by the Syrians: Syria Palaistina. 63 BC : Jerusalem was overrun by Rome. Herod is appointed King of Judea. A period of great civil disorder followed with strife and riots against the Roman authorities. 37-4 BC : During the rule of King Herod, Jesus of Nazareth, was born. And years after, he began his teaching mission. His attempts to call people back to the pure teachings of Abraham and Moses were judged subversive (crucifixtion) by the authorities. He was tried and sentenced to death.
0-36 CE-Birth and Death of Jesus under continuing Roman Rule • 66 CE Jewish revolt • 2nd Temple destroyed (Western Wall still standing) • Jews forbidden in JerusalemDiaspora 2 main ethnic branches develop Ashkenazic(German) – of Central and E. Europe –spoke Yiddish European beliefs Sephardic(Mediterranean) - Spain, later Arab Countries.
70 AD : Titus of Rome attacked Jerusalem. The fiercely defended Temple eventually fell, and with it the whole city. Seeking a complete and enduring victory, Titus ordered the total destructionof theTemple. A new city named Aelia was built by the Romans on the ruins of Jerusalem, and a temple dedicated to Jupitor raised up.
313 AD : Palestine received special attention when the Roman emperor Constantine I legalized Christianity and conquered Jerusalem. His mother, Helena, visited Jerusalem, and Palestine, as the Holy Land, became a focus of Christian pilgrimage. A golden age of prosperity, security, and culture followed. Most of the population became Christianized
330-638-Palestine under Byzantine rule: Emperor Constantine: Christianity spreads
630-Death of Muhammad/spread of Islam 638: Arabs capture Jerusalem 661-750: Palestine administered from Damascus, Syria. Dome of the Rock and Al Aqsa mosque constructed
Eager to be rid of their Byzantine overlords and aware of their shared heritage with the Arabs, the descendants of Ishmael, as well as the Muslims reputation for mercy and compassion in victory, the people of Jerusalem handed over the city after a brief siege.
They made only one condition, that the terms of their surrender be negotiated directly with the Khalif 'Umar in person. 'Umar entered Jerusalem on foot. There was no bloodshed. There were no massacres. Those who wanted to leave were allowed to, with all their goods. Those who wanted to stay were guaranteed protection for their lives, their property and places of worship
After the bitter battles they had endured with the Persians, in which hundreds of lives were lost, the Christians of Jerusalem felt that they had earned possession of the Holy City with their life’s blood. But less than ten years after the battles between Byzantium and Persia at last came to an end, Caliph Umar’s armies arrived at the gates of Jerusalem. They had already subjugated much of the country, and victory over the Holy City therefore seemed assured. Patriarch Heraklios fled the country, taking the True Cross from Jerusalem with him. When at last the Greek Orthodox Patriarch Sophronius of Jerusalem was forced to surrender in 638 A.D., Umar is believed to have traveled to Jerusalem personally in order to receive the surrender. Umar had become the second caliph following the death of Abu Bakr, making him one of the earliest successors of Mohammed himself. His procession into the city was a humble one: the caliph was clad in simple attire, leading a camel. His conquest of Jerusalem, once the city had surrendered, was marked by its lack of further killing and destruction. The Christian holy sites were one and all left intact.
When Umar asked Sophronius to guide him to the city’s holy places, the patriarch took the caliph to the Church of the Holy Sepulchre. Famously, Umar refrained from praying within the church itself, as that would have transformed the church into a Muslim holy site. Instead Umar prayed outside in the streets of Jerusalem. But the caliph was most curious to see the Temple of Solomon, of fabled magnificence. He was horrified to discover that the Temple was in ruins, and the Temple Mount itself had become a rubbish heap in which the city garbage was regularly dumped. It was at this moment that Temple Mount’s identity as a site holy to Islam began to take shape. Umar commanded his men to clear the rubbish from the platform. He then had a rough-hewn wooden mosque built at the southern end of the platform.
The Arab conquest began essentially 1300 years of consecutive Muslim presence in Jerusalem.
Palestine was holy to Muslims because the Prophet Muhammad had designated Jerusalem as the first qibla (the direction Muslims face when praying) and because he was believed to have ascended to heaven from the the old city of Jerusalem (al-Aqsa Mosque today) , where the Dome of the Rock was later built. Jerusalem became the third holiest city of Islam.
The Muslim rulers did not force their religion on the Palestinians, and more than a century passed before the majority converted to Islam. The remaining Christians and Jews were considered People of the Book. They were allowed autonomous control in their communities and guaranteed security and freedom of worship. Most Palestinians also adopted Arabic and Islamic culture.
750 AD : The power shifted to the Abbasids (from present-day Iran) Palestine became neglected. It suffered unrest and successive domination by Seljuks, Fatimids, and for a short time by European Crusaders.
. It shared, however, in the glory of Muslim civilization, when the Muslim world enjoyed a golden age of science, art, philosophy, and literature. Muslims preserved Greek learning and broke new ground in several fields, all of which later contributed to the Renaissance in Europe. Eventually Palestine came under the control of the Mamelukes.
1517 AD : The Ottoman Turks of Asia Minor defeated the Mamelukes, with few interruptions, ruled Palestine until the winter of 1917-18. The country was divided into several districts (sanjaks), such as that of Jerusalem. The administration of the districts was placed largely in the hands of Arab Palestinians, who were descendants of the Canaanites. The Christian and Jewish communities, however, were allowed a large measure of independence. Palestine shared in the glory of the Ottoman Empire during the 16th century, but declined again when the empire began to decline in the 17th century.
The administration of the districts was placed largely in the hands of Arab Palestinians, who were descendants of the Canaanites. The Christian and Jewish communities, however, were allowed a large measure of independence. Palestine shared in the glory of the Ottoman Empire during the 16th century, but declined again when the empire began to decline in the 17th century.
Zionism Theodore Herzl1860-1904
Zionism as a 19th century nationalist movement • Rejection of Torah as “symbolic land” – as moveable land – Jewish people need territory like other nations. • Theodor Herzl (Poland) “Der Judenstaat” Jewish State as a result of increased pogroms etc… in E. Europe • 1878-1903: First wave of Zionists (25,000) enter Palestine • 1st Zionist Congress – Basel, Switzerland, 1897
1897 the firstZionist(people dedicated to returning Jewish people to Isreal/Palestine) Congress held Basle, Switzerland, issued the Basle program on colonizing of Palestine 1845 Jewish presence in Palestine was 12,000. This number increased to 85,000 by 1914.
GOALS:The spiritual andpolitical renewal ofthe Jewish peoplein its ancestralhomeland ofPalestine. Freedom from Western anti-Semitism.
1904 the Fourth Zionist Congress decided to establish a national home for Jews in Argentina.1906 the Zionist congress decided the Jewish homeland should be Palestine.
1914 With the outbreak of World War I, Britain promised the independence of Arab lands under Ottoman rule, including Palestine, in return for Arab support against Turkey which had entered the war on the side of Germany.
Hussein-McMahon Letters, 1915 ....Britain is prepared to recognize and uphold the independence of the Arabs in all regions lying within the frontiers proposed by the Sharif of Mecca.... Hussein ibn Ali,Sharif of Mecca
1916 Britain and France signed the Sykes-Picot Agreement, which divided the Arab region into zones of influence controlled by England and France. Lebanon and Syria were assigned to France, Jordan, Iraq and Palestine to Britain and Palestine was to be internationalized.