Henry VIII, Rome and divorce. To understand how and why Henry VIII fell out with the Pope. To know how this affected the life of Henry and religion in the whole of England.
Key people in the reign of Henry VIII.Six wives. Three children. Three advisors. Three enemies.
Film: England in 1509. 1. What did Henry VII say to young Henry on his death bed? 2. What did Henry VII say that young Henry should watch out for when he was king? 3. What was the state of England when Henry VII died in 1509 compared to when he became king in 1485?
Catherine of Aragon • 1501 Prince Arthur married Princess Catherine of Aragon. Arthur died less than a year later. • 1509 Catherine married Prince Henry who became King when his father died the same year. • 1513 Henry went to France. Catherine ran the country for him. Her army defeated and killed the King of Scotland. Henry and Catherine were a popular and loving couple.
1513. The Battle of Flodden.The English defeated and killed King James IV of Scotland who was married to Henry’s sister Margaret Tudor.
Catherine of Aragon. • Henry and Catherine desperately wanted a son. Catherine gave birth to six children but only one survived, Princess Mary.
Film: Catherine of Aragon. 1. Did Henry and Catherine love each other? 2. Why did they fall out after nearly twenty years of marriage? 3. Henry had an illegitimate son. What does that mean? 4. How could Henry have a legitimate son and heir?
Anne Boleyn. • 1527 Henry thought Catherine was too old to have a son. He had mistresses but their children were not legitimate. He met Anne Boleyn (sister of his mistress Mary Boleyn). Anne hated Henry and played hard to get. Henry fell in love with her.
Film: Anne Boleyn 1. Who did Anne want to marry? 2. What did Wolsey do? 3. Give two reasons why Anne hated Henry? 4. How did Henry woo Anne? 5. Why was Anne clever in her dealings with Henry?
Thomas Wolsey • Wolsey was Henry’s Lord Chancellor and right hand man. • He was a cardinal. • He was very rich and powerful. • He was loyal to the Pope in Rome. • Anne Boleyn hated Wolsey. • Henry asked Wolsey to see if his marriage to Catherine was valid.
Film: Thomas Wolsey 1. Why was Wolsey important to Henry? 2. Why did Anne hate Wolsey? 3. What did Henry ask Wolsey to do with regard to his marriage to Catherine of Aragon?
Henry wanted to divorce Catherine of Aragon. • 1529 Henry asked Wolsey to ask the Pope for a divorce. • Catherine was put on trial. They tried to prove that she had consummated her marriage with Arthur. She said that Arthur had been too ill. If it could be proved that Catherine and Arthur were “properly married” then the Bible said that it was illegal for a brother to marry his brother’s widow!
Pope Clement • 1527 Rome had been captured by the army of the Holy Roman Emperor Charles V. Charles was Catherine of Aragon’s nephew. • Pope Clement refused to give Henry a divorce.
Film: Thomas Wolsey 1. What advice did Wolsey give to Anne? 2. What did Catherine say in the court set up by Wolsey to prove that her marriage to Henry was illegal? 3. What did Anne say to Henry after an argument between her and Wolsey? 4. What did Henry do to Wolsey?
Wolsey had failed to get the divorce for Henry. He was arrested but died on the way to his trial. Henry took his palace Hampton Court.
Thomas Cromwell • Thomas Cromwell was Wolsey’s secretary. He took Wolsey’s job as Lord Chancellor.
Thomas Cranmer. • Cranmer was the Archbishop of Canterbury. This made him the most senior churchman in England.
History homework. 1529. Henry VIII’s great problem. Imagine you could interview these people for a newspaper set in England in 1529. What would they say? King Henry VIII. I need to divorce Catherine of Aragon because ... Catherine of Aragon. I oppose the King because ... Anne Boleyn. I want to marry Henry because because ... Thomas Wolsey I am in a difficult position because ... Thomas Cromwell This is an opportunity for me because ... Thomas Cranmer. Cromwell and I have a cunning plan. It is to ...
Cromwell and Cranmer were Protestants. They disliked the Catholic Church and the Pope. They told Henry that he did not have to obey the Pope. He could make himself Head of the Church of England and give himself a divorce. A law was passed called the Act of Supremacy. The Pope excommunicated Henry. 1533 The Act of Supremacy.A solution to the King’s problem.
Film: Cromwell and Cranmer. 1. What was Cromwell’s job? 2. What was Cranmer’s job? 3. They were both protestants. What does that mean? 4. How did they solve Henry’s problem over the divorce from Catherine of Aragon?
1533 Henry divorced Catherine of Aragon. She was expelled from court. • 1533 Henry married Anne Boleyn. • Anne had a baby girl, Elizabeth. Henry was disappointed. Anne Boleyn. 1507-1536
Anne Boleyn.1507-1536.1536Henry asked Cromwell to get rid of Anne. She was accused of treason against the King (including incest). She was beheaded.
Film: Anne’s execution 1. Why did Henry and Anne start to argue? 2. What did Henry tell Cromwell to do about Anne? 3. What was Anne accused of? 4. Why did Henry feel guilty about her execution?
Dear Elizabeth • Imagine you are Anne Boleyn. • Write a letter to your daughter )who is only two and a half years old) which will be given to Elizabeth when she is 16. • In the letter explain how much you loved her and give her advice on how she should behave as a princess.
1536. The Dissolution of the Monasteries.Henry ordered Cromwell to close the monasteries and confiscate their wealth.The monks and nuns were accused of supporting the Pope and not keeping their vows.
1536The Pilgrimage of Grace. In Yorkshire and Lincolnshire many people disliked the changes that were being made to religion. They wanted the monasteries to be left alone. They blamed Thomas Cromwell. Robert Aske led a Catholic rebellion. They marched to York. King Henry promised to listen to their demands. They went home. Aske and other rebel leaders were executed.
Film: Robert Aske 1. Why was Robert Aske angry? 2. What rebellion did he lead? 3. Who did the rebels blame? 4. Why did Henry have to negotiate with Aske and the rebels? 5. Why was Aske killed?
Jane Seymour1509-1537. Jane Seymour married Henry in 1536. She became pregnant and gave birth to Prince Edward in 1537. Unfortunately she died soon after giving birth.
Film: Jane Seymour 1. Why did Henry marry her? 2. Why did she die? 3. Why did Henry love her so much?
Anne of Cleves1515-1557. Cromwell persuaded Henry to marry Anne in 1540. She was a German protestant. Henry needed a protestant ally. The marriage only lasted six months. Henry divorced her and then executed Cromwell.
Film: Anne of Cleves 1. Why did Cromwell persuade Henry to marry her? 2. Why would Henry not consummate the marriage? 3. Who did Henry blame? 4. What happened to Cromwell? 5. What happened to Anne?
Catherine Howard1521-1542 Henry needed support from the powerful Howard family. They were Catholics. In July 1540 Henry (49) married Catherine (19). She committed adultery and was executed for treason in 1542.
Film: Catherine Howard 1. Who introduced Henry to Catherine? 2. Why did Henry marry her? 3. Why did the marriage not work? 4. What happened to Catherine? 5. What happened to Norfolk?
Catherine Parr1512-1548 In 1543 Henry (52) married Catherine (31). He was very ill and needed a nurse as well as a mother for his three children. Catherine survived Henry by a year. They were married for four years.
Film: Catherine Parr 1. Why did Henry marry her? 2. Why did she survive?
Henry’s six wives.For each wife answer the following questions: • Name and number? • When were they married and for how long? • Religion? • Why did he marry her? • Age? • Appearance? • Character? • Why did the marriage end? Use pages 20-21 in the brown book and pages 10-11 in the orange book
Henry VIII. Test. When did Catherine of Aragon marry Henry? Why did he marry her? How long were they married? Why did they divorce? When did Anne Boleyn marry Henry? Why did he marry her? How long were they married? Why did he execute her? When did Jane Seymour marry Henry? Why did he marry her? How long were they married? Why did the marriage end? When did Anne of Cleves marry Henry? Why did he marry her? How long were they married? Why did they divorce?
17. When did Catherine Howard marry Henry? 18. Why did he marry her? 19. How long were they married? 20. Why did he execute her? 21. When did Catherine Parr marry Henry? 22. Why did he marry her? 23.How long were they married? 24. Why did the marriage end? 25. Which of Henry’s wives did he love the most?
Film: Henry’s death 1. What did Henry say to Prince Edward on his death bed?
Assessment Was Henry VIII a great monarch or a tyrant?
Henry’s enemies abroad. King James IV of Scotland. 1488-1513 Emperor Charles V. 1519-1556 King Francis I of France. 1515-1547.
What was the King’s job? • Produce a male heir. • Defend the country against enemies. • Use his diplomatic skills to stay on good terms with his enemies. • Maintain law and order in England and Wales. Deal with rebellions. • Fill the Treasury.
Henry VIII has been a subject of interest and study for centuries. One of Britain's most powerful rulers, he came to the throne at eighteen and left it at fifty-six. He married six times and left three children, only one of whom was considered his legitimate heir at the time of Henry's death.
Great Monarch? Tyrant?
There are many ways of describing Henry. Put the positive descriptions in one column and the negative ones in another The Defender of the Faith. Brave. Strong leader. Warrior. Lecher. Bully. Patriot. Sense of humour. Spendthrift.Poet. Musician. Insane. Ruthless. Got rid of the interfering Popes. Made England respected. International diplomat. Murderer. Diabetic. Suffering from terminal syphilis. Glutton. Athlete. Boy King. Left an heir.Destroyed the monasteries. Defeated the Scots. Defeated the French (once). Lost the Mary Rose. Composer. Writer. Lover. Left England bankrupt. Which mask reveals the real Henry?