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Objectives. The development of tools throughout history The standard types of machine tools used in shops The newly developed space-age machines and processes. History of Machine Tools. Began during stone age (<50,000 years ago) Hand tools of wood, animal bones, or stone

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  • The development of tools throughout history
  • The standard types of machine tools used in shops
  • The newly developed space-age machines and processes
history of machine tools
History of Machine Tools
  • Began during stone age (<50,000 years ago)
    • Hand tools of wood, animal bones, or stone
  • Bronze age (4500 to 4000 b.c.)
    • Copper and bronze implements
    • Power-operated (animal power)
  • Iron age (1000 b.c.)
    • Iron replaced bronze
    • Domesticated animals provided power
    • Commodities handmade by skilled craftspeople
history of machine tools1
History of Machine Tools
  • Machine age (~300 years ago)
    • Explored new sources of energy (water)
  • Industrial age began when James Watt produced first steam engine (1776)
    • Steam engine provided power to other areas
    • Machines improved
      • Steam/steel in ships, railroads, steam tractors
      • New power – electricity produced by generators
      • Diesel and gasoline engines
history of machine tools2
History of Machine Tools
  • Progress continued slowly during first part of 20th century
    • Spurts during the two world wars
  • Since 1950s, progress rapid
  • Now in space age
    • Atom harnessed: nuclear power
    • Journey to moon and outer space
    • Calculators, computers, robots commonplace
    • Can mass produce parts to millionths of an inch
improved production
Improved Production
  • Constant improvement made modern machine tools more accurate and efficient
  • Improved production and accuracy
common machine tools
Common Machine Tools
  • Generally power-driven metal-cutting or -forming machines used to shape metals
    • The removal of chips
    • Pressing, drawing, or shearing
    • Controlled electrical machining processes
machine tool capabilities
Machine Tool Capabilities
  • Holding and supporting the workpiece
  • Holding and supporting a cutting tool
  • Imparting a suitable movement (rotating or reciprocating) to the cutting tool or the work
  • Feeding the cutting tool or the work so that the desired cutting action and accuracy will be achieved
machine tool categories
Machine Tool Categories
  • Four broad categories
    • Chip-producing machines
    • Non-chip-producing machines
    • New-generation machines
    • Multi-tasking machines
chip producing machine
Chip-producing Machine
  • Form metal to size and shape by cutting away unwanted sections
  • Generally alter shape of steel-produced products
    • Casting
    • Forging
    • Rolling
non chip producing machines
Non-chip-producing Machines
  • Form metal to size and shape by pressing, drawing, punching, or shearing
  • Produce parts by compressing granular or powdered metallic materials
new generation machines
New-Generation Machines
  • Perform operations that cannot be done on chip- or non-chip-producing machines
  • Use either electrical or chemical energy
multi tasking machines
Multi-tasking Machines
  • Combined machining and turning center
  • Can produce virtually any shape part from rough to finish
  • Consists of turning center with two independent spindles and vertical machining center with rotary tool spindle
  • Combine Information Technology (IT) and Manufacturing Technology (MT)
machine tool performance
Machine Tool Performance
  • Metal-removal rate
    • Depends upon cutting speed, feed rate, and depth of cut
  • Accuracy
    • How precisely machine can position cutting tool to given location once
  • Repeatability
    • Ability of machine to position cutting tool consistently to any given position
general machine shop tools
General Machine Shop Tools
  • Tools basic to production of metal components
  • Operations most commonly performed: turning, boring, threading, drilling, reaming, sawing, milling, filing, and grinding
  • Basic Machine tools
    • Drill press, engine lathe, power saw, milling machine and grinder
drill press
Drill Press
  • First mechanical device developed
  • Used primarily to produce round holes
  • Function to grip and revolve cutting tool
  • Common operations
    • Drilling, reaming, spot facing, countersinking, counterboring, and tapping
engine lathe
Engine Lathe
  • Used to produce round work
  • Workpiece held and mounted on lathe spindle which is revolved against cutting tool
  • Common operations
    • Straight turning, tapering, facing, drilling, boring, reaming, and thread cutting
two types of metal saw

Material in vise and saw blade

brought into contact with work

Material on table and brought into contact

with continuous-cutting saw blade

Two Types of Metal Saw
  • Reciprocating cutoff saw
    • Used to cut work to length only
  • Bandsaw
    • Horizontal
      • Used to cut work to length
    • Vertical
      • Used to cut work to length and shape
milling machine
Milling Machine
  • Two types: horizontal and vertical milling
  • Use one or more rotating milling cutters with single or multiple cutting edges
  • Workpiece fed into revolving cutter
  • Accessories allow wide variety of operations
    • Drilling, reaming, boring, counterboring and spot facing
  • Use abrasive cutting tool on workpiece
    • Bring to accurate size
    • Produce high surface finish
  • Surface of work brought into contact with revolving grinding wheel
common types of grinders
Common Types of Grinders
  • Surface
    • Used to produce flat, angular, or contoured surfaces
  • Cylindrical
    • Used to produce internal and external diameters
  • Cutter and Tool
    • Used to sharpen milling machine cutters
  • Bench or Pedestal
    • Used for offhand grinding and sharpening
special machine tools
Special Machine Tools
  • Designed to perform all operations necessary to produce single component
  • Include
    • Gear-generating machines
    • Centerless, cam and thread grinders
    • Turret lathes
    • Automatic screw machines
cnc equivalent of engine lathe
CNC Equivalent of Engine Lathe
  • Capable of machining round parts in one sixth time of skilled machinist
  • Two centers
    • Chucking
      • Designed to machine parts in a chuck (holding and driving device)
    • Turning
      • Designed mainly for shaft-type workpieces supported by some type of tailstock center
  • One of fastest-growing areas of manufacturing industry
  • Numerical control applied to robots
  • Capable of handling materials and changing machine tool accessories easily and efficiently
  • Used increasingly for cutting and welding
  • Used in sensing devices for extremely accurate measuring and surveying
  • Used for many materials beyond metals