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Chapter 27 American in World War II. Section 1: Early Difficulties Section 2: The Home Front Section 3: Victory in Europe Section 4: victory in Asia. Bell Ringer 11/21/11.

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chapter 27 american in world war ii

Chapter 27 American in World War II

Section 1: Early Difficulties

Section 2: The Home Front

Section 3: Victory in Europe

Section 4: victory in Asia

bell ringer 11 21 11
Bell Ringer 11/21/11
  • Consider that Axis Powers have been at war. What Strengths and Weaknesses do you believe the Axis Powers already had in WWII.
  • What Strengths and Weaknesses do you believe the United Sates or other Allied Powers had going into WWII?
    • Remember U.S. was in isolation.
  • Objectives
  • Analyze the strengths and weaknesses of the Allied and Axis Powers in 1942
  • Evaluate the steps the United States took to mobilize for war and review the steps already taken.
strengths and weaknesses of axis and allies
Strengths and Weaknesses of Axis and Allies

Allied Powers

  • Advantage
    • United States had tremendous production capacity
    • The Soviet union (S.U.) had vast manpower
    • Britain and the S.U. had not been defeated
  • Disadvantage
    • Faced a long, drawn-out fight on several fronts
    • Enemy held firm control of conquered area spread over an enormous area- both in Europe and the Pacific
strengths and weaknesses of axis and allies1
Strengths and Weaknesses of Axis and Allies

Axis Powers

  • Advantage
    • Better prepared for war
    • Had firm control over invaded areas
    • Had been rearmed since the 1930’s
    • Already had airfields, barracks, and military training centers
    • Economics ready for war
  • Disadvantage
    • Had to defend multiple fronts
short write
Short Write
  • How might the U.S. have countered Axis advantages?
    • 2 minutes
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mobilization for war
Mobilization for War
  • Switch from peacetime to wartime.
    • Arsenals before war employed 22,000, by the war’s end 486,000 workers.
war time production
War Time Production
  • United States suspended car production and changed the production of shipyards.
  • Fords building B-24 bombers, jeeps, tank engines, and a wide array of other military hardware.
  • Civilian production of Chevrolet cars ceased. Production of trucks for military use, including Carryall Suburban's, continued throughout the war years.
production wwii
Production WWII
  • Unemployment dropped from 14.6% in 1940 to 1.2% in 1944. Earnings nearly doubled between 1939-1945
  • Agriculture increased to supply food to the U.S. and Allies.
bell ringer 11 22 11
Bell Ringer 11/22/11

According to the Allied and Axis strengths and weaknesses, what are 3 ways the United States countered their advantages?

  • Objectives
  • Evaluate the steps the United States took to mobilize for war and review the steps already taken.
  • Analyze the War in the Pacific and Europe in the early stages of WWII.
  • Create a map of the war in the Pacific and Europe up to 1941
war production board
War Production Board
  • Number of federal employees nearly tripled from 1940-1945
    • 1942 Roosevelt created War Production Board (WPB) to increase military production.
      • Regulate the production and allocation of materials and fuel during WWII.
      • Automobile factories- built tanks
      • Silk Ribbon factories- parachutes
      • Typewriter companies- machine guns
      • Undergarment manufacturer- sewed mosquito netting
      • Roller coaster manufacturer- bomber repair platforms
federal expansion
Federal Expansion
  • May 27,1943 the Office of War of Mobilization (OWN) was created to coordinate all government agencies involved in war effort.
    • Independent agency of the United States. Took over for War Production Board
  • Directory James F. Byrnes wielded so much power is often called “assistant president on the home front”. He coordinated production and distribution of goods.
short write1
Short Write
  • Why might gasoline have been an important ration item?
    • 1.5 minutes
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Increased amount of Americans who had to pay income tax

    • Affecting most middle- and lower- income groups
    • Selling of war bonds allowed people to channel their excess money and keep inflation low.
raising an army
Raising an Army
  • Selective Training and Service Act
    • First Peace Draft
    • Men 18-35
    • Average soldier 26, 58”, 144 lbs 1 inch taller than WWI less than ½ had finished high school.
notice to registrant to appear
Notice to Registrant to Appear
  • Began in summer of 1940 (over a year before Pearl Harbor)
  • Army needed to grow over 50X to fight the war!

300,000 women served in or Women's Auxiliary Army Corps (WAAC) and Women's Air force Service Pilots (WASPS)

american strategy in wwi
American Strategy in WWI
  • Europe First
    • Concentrate military resources on European Theatre
    • Keep Britain in the war- Win Battle of Atlantic
    • Caution in opening a second front in Europe (North African Campaign begins in November 1942)
  • Stop Japanese offensive
    • Protect Australia, New Guinea and Pacific perimeter
war in the pacific
War in the Pacific

December 7th 1941 Japan Strikes Pearl Harbor

japanese attack after pearl harbor
Japanese Attack After Pearl Harbor
  • Clark Air Force Base bombed in the Philippines December 8, 1941
    • (America’s Far-East Fleet)
    • Douglas Macarthur
    • Over the next two weeks Japanese attacked…..
  • Burma and Hong Kong
    • Center’s of British power in the Pacific
  • Netherlands East Indies
    • Oil resources Japan needed
  • Wake Island
battle of java sea
Battle of Java Sea
  • February 27,1942 in Battle of Java Sea
    • Japanese navy crushed a fleet of Australian, British, Dutch, and U.S. warships had been trying to block a Japanese invasion of Java
    • The Japanese invaded Java the next day and began their conquest of New Guinea
war in the pacific1
War in the Pacific

Defending the Philippines were more than 30,000 U.S. and 110,000 Filipino troops under overall command of General Douglas MacArthur.

Japanese bombers attacked Clark Air Force Base and overwhelmed MacArthur’s troops

Surrendered to Bataan.

bataan death march
Bataan Death March

Japanese forced more than 70,000 survivors to march through the jungle on their way to prison camp, estimated 5,000-11,000 died.

Stopped for water were shot

Beaten or shot otherwise

Disease spread

among the sick and poorly

fed soldiers.

japan and prisoners of war
Japan and Prisoners of War
  • 1/3 of all American POWs died or were killed by Japanese captors
  • Japanese looked on surrendering troops as sub-human
halting the japanese advance
Halting the Japanese Advance

Japanese ready to strike Australia, India, and through Hawaii to the Pacific coast of the United states

Commander Chester Nimitz did not consider the attack on Pearl Harbor to be a complete disaster, still able to halt Japanese Advance.

battle of the coral sea
Battle of the Coral Sea

May 1942

Stopped advance on Australia

Japanese on their way to Port Moresby, New Guinea

British and United states troops force intercepted them

Offset bitterness of losses of Pearl Harbor, Bataan

battle of midway
Battle of Midway

June 1942

US Pacific fleet stopped Japan from getting to Hawaii. First clear naval victory 2 pronged attack over Japan

Aleutian Islands near Alaska

Midway, small islands northwest of Hawaii

Broke code and Nimitz was able to ambush Japanese attack.


August-October 1942: First major offensive in Pacific

Under command of General Alexander A. Vandergrift

Marines ashore Guadalcanal in Solomon Islands 6 months at toehold around airport

Japanese refused to surrender

Tide turns in Pacific War

the east and pacific 1941
The East and Pacific 1941
  • Battle of the Coral Sea (May 1942)
    • Chester Nimitz
    • Stopped Japanese advance on Australia
    • Offset bitterness of losses: Pearl Harbor, Bataan
  • Battle of Midway
    • Chester Nimitz
    • First clear naval victory over Japan
    • Weakened Japanese force in Pacific
  • Guadalcanal (August-October 1942)
    • General Alexander A Vandergrift
    • First offensive in Pacific
    • Tide turns in Pacific War
early fighting in europe and the mediterranean
Early Fighting in Europe and the Mediterranean

Axis controlled much of Europe and lands around the Mediterranean

Bulgaria, Hungary, and Romania joined Axis Powers

German U-Boats patrolled the Atlantic

north africa
North Africa
  • Italian force launched invasion in North Africa in 1940
  • Adolf sent commander Erwin Rommel also known as “Desert Fox”
  • Advanced as far as El Alamein, Egypt by July 1942
    • Ready to take Suez Canal and the oil fields of the Middle East
    • Suffering from shortage of men and supplies
  • Fall 1942 British led by Bernard Montgomery pushed steadily westward out of Egypt and into Libya
  • British victory in the Battle of El Alamein helped turn for Allies in North Africa

German troops penetrated far into Soviet Union

Closing in on Moscow and laid siege on Leningrad

June 1942 fighting for control of Stalingrad

Finally surround Germany late 1943

Germans forbidden to surrender by Hitler while in Soviet terrible winter.

Along with Alamein they broke momentum of Axis advance.

major battles of 1942 in europe and north africa
Major battles of 1942 in Europe and North Africa
  • Battle of El Alamein
    • British stop German drive to Suez Canal and Mid-East oil
  • Battle of Stalingrad
    • Soviets stop German drive to Soviet oil fields-end of German drive against USSR(Union of Soviet Socialist Republics)(BARBAROSSA)
graphic organizer and map project
Graphic Organizer and Map Project
  • Fill in the different Battles, Leader, and the Outcome. Include important details.
  • Complete map project. Use different colors and designs to represent different battles and Allied or Axis forces.
    • 10 minutes
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