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American History Chapter 18: World War II: Americans at War IV. The War in the Pacific Bell Ringer What is the most important way the use of nuclear weapons has changed the world? What were some events that led to the war between Japan and the US? Objectives

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Presentation Transcript
bell ringer
Bell Ringer
  • What is the most important way the use of nuclear weapons has changed the world?
  • What were some events that led to the war between Japan and the US?
objectives
Objectives
  • Learn about advances Japan made in Asia and the Pacific in late 1941 and 1942.
  • See which Allied victories turned the tide of war in the Pacific.
  • Read about the strategy of the US in the struggle to reconquer the Pacific Islands.
  • Discover why the battles of Iwo Jima and Okinawa were important.
  • Understand how the Manhattan Project brought the war to an end.
setting the scene
Setting the Scene
  • General Douglas MacArthur – US commander in the Pacific.
  • Japan struck Wake, Guam, and the Clark Field in the Philippines shortly after Pearl Harbor.
b the japanese advance 1941 1942
B) The Japanese Advance, 1941-1942
  • Japan hoped by attacking the US we would withdraw and let them have the natural resources
  • Also attacked Britain – Hong Kong and Singapore
  • Dutch East Indies and Burma.
a the philippines fall
a) The Philippines Fall
  • US trapped on the peninsula of Bataan – Navy can’t rescue them
  • 80,000 US and Filipino troops forced to walk 60 miles without food or water in tropical heat
  • MacArthur escapes – “I shall return”
  • Bataan Death March: 10,000 US and Filipino troops died on the march off of Bataan
  • Geneva Convention: an international treaty calling for international standards of conduct towards prisoners of war.
b defending china and burma
b) Defending China and Burma
  • China joined the Allies in 1941
  • American General Stilwell Jiang Jiechi’s Chief of Staff
  • “Flying Tigers”
  • We loose the Burma Road
c the war at sea
c) The War at Sea
  • 3 US carriers escaped Pearl Harbor – Lexington, Enterprise, and Saratoga
  • Doolittle Raid – April 1942, bombers flown off of a carrier Hornet bomb Tokyo and land in China – big moral boost
  • Japan tries to take Australia
  • Battle of the Coral Sea: First naval battle fought entirely in the air – draw
  • Did stop the invasion of Australia
  • US looses Lexington and the Yorktown is badly damaged
  • Japan looses 1 and 2 others heavily damaged
c allied victories turn the tide
C) Allied Victories Turn the Tide
  • Battle of Midway: Japan attacks the Islands of Midway – US sink 4 carriers and shoot down 250 planes – US loses 1 carrier (Yorktown) – US wins - Turning point of the Pacific War
  • Midway was a US trap – broke code

24) Battle of Guadalcanal: US first offensive in the Pacific – US win

d struggle for the islands
D) Struggle for the Islands
  • Island-hopping: US battle plan for Pacific – take selective Islands to get to Japan faster – (runways)
  • US take Solomon Islands, Gilbert Islands, Tarawa, Marshall Islands and Mariana Islands (B-29)
  • Admiral Bull Halsey and Chester Nimitz

26) Battle of Leyte Gulf – first attack on the Philippines – Japan attacks with everything – US win

  • 80,000 Japanese dead – 1,000 surrendered
  • Kamikazes: suicide planes that deliberately crashed into US ships – not effective
  • “Divine wind”
e iwo jima and okinawa
Iwo Jima

US bombed Island for 74 days

Japan 25,000 – US 110,000

Japan 216 survivors – US 25,000 casualties

US 27 medals of honor

Flag on Mt. Surabachi

Okinawa

Japan 100,000

US 180,000

US casualties 50,000

Japan 7,200 survivors

350 miles from Japan

E) Iwo Jima and Okinawa
f the manhattan project
F) The Manhattan Project
  • Invasion of Japan scared US siliy (400,000)
  • Albert Einstein wrote a letter to Roosevelt saying an atomic bomb was possible and that the Germans might have one
  • Manhattan Project: US program that built an atomic bomb
  • J. Robert Oppenheimer “Now I have become Death, the destroyer of worlds”
  • Roosevelt's death
the decision to drop the bomb
The Decision to Drop the Bomb
  • a massive invasion would cost millions of US and Japanese lives
  • A naval blockade – take time –starve
  • A demonstration on a deserted island to pressure the Japanese to surrender
  • Something less then unconditional surrender
  • Interim Committee debated these ideas – Truman said go ahead
  • Wanted the Soviets to see it.
japan surrenders
Japan Surrenders
  • August 6th 1945 – the Enola Gay dropped an atomic bomb on Hiroshima – 80,000 died
  • August 9th – 1945 Nagasaki was hit
  • August 14th the Japanese surrendered
  • Sept 2 – official signing on the USS Missouri in Tokyo Bay
  • WWII was over
review
Review
  • What advances did Japan make in Asia and the Pacific in late 1941 and 1942?
  • Which Allied victories turned the tide of war in the Pacific?
  • What was the strategy of the US in the struggle to reconquer the Pacific islands?
  • How did the Manhattan Project bring the war to an end?