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Introduction to Statistical Quality Control. What is Statistical Quality Control?. S tatistical Q uality C ontrol Statistical Quality Control - SQC. “Statistical”. What does the term statistical imply?. “Control”. What does the term control imply?. What is Quality?. What is Quality?.

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what is statistical quality control
What is Statistical Quality Control?
  • Statistical
  • Quality
  • Control
    • Statistical Quality Control - SQC
statistical
“Statistical”
  • What does the term statistical imply?
control
“Control”
  • What does the term control imply?
what is quality1
What is Quality?
  • Traditional definition of Quality:
    • Product focused
    • Fitness of use - products must meet the requirements of users.
dimensions of quality products
Dimensions of Quality (Products)
  • Performance – Will the product do the intended job?
  • Reliability – How often does the product fail?
  • Durability - How long does the product last?
  • Serviceability – How easy is it to repair the product?
  • Aesthetics – What does the product look like?
  • Features – What does the product do?
dimensions of quality
Dimensions of Quality
  • In addition to products there is quality of:
  • Dimensions
two aspects of fitness for use
Two Aspects of “Fitness for Use”
  • Quality of design –
    • Products are designed to be in various grades of quality. (e.g., Autos differ with respect to size, options, speed, etc.)
    • Service systems are designed for different grades of quality
  • Quality of conformance –
    • How well the product conforms to specifications. (e.g., If diameter of a drilled hole is within specifications then it has good quality.)
    • Does the service representative follow guidelines?
a general definition of quality
A General Definition of Quality
  • Quality can viewed in multiple ways
  • To study quality and develop quality analysis approaches, a more general definition is needed
a general definition of quality1
A General Definition of Quality
  • Quality is inversely proportional to Variability
  • If the variability of an important product characteristic decreases  quality of product increases
  • Quality Improvement –
    • Reduction of variability in processes and products.
a general definition of quality2
A General Definition of Quality
  • Characterizing variability is generally quantitative and data driven.
  • Reducing variability in some product/service characteristic forces more in depth exploration and knowledge of the design and production or delivery processes.
summary
Summary
  • SPC embodies statistical methods focusing on monitoring and reducing variability.
  • Our initial focus will be on basic statistical concepts and analysis methods.
quality in industry
Quality in Industry
  • Terminology
  • Where quality control is applied
  • Six-Sigma
terminology
Terminology
  • Quality Engineering –
    • Set of operational, managerial, and engineering activities that a company uses to ensure that quality characteristics of a product/service are at nominal levels
      • Quality planning
      • Quality assurance
      • Quality control and improvement
terminology1
Terminology
  • Quality planning
    • Strategic: Customers and their needs, products, measures,…
  • Quality assurance
    • Policies, procedures, work instructions, specifications, records, etc. for making sure products meet desired quality levels
  • Quality control and improvement
    • Monitoring specific results and identifying ways to eliminate causes of unsatisfactory results (reduce variability)
where quality control is applied
Where Quality Control is Applied
  • “An ounce of prevention is worth a pound of cure”
acceptance sampling
Acceptance Sampling
  • Sample from lot to determine acceptance
  • More efficient than 100% inspection
  • Reduces bad product sent to consumer
    • Dodge & Romig 1930s
  • No feedback, prevention or improvement
on line process control
On-Line Process Control
  • Monitoring of manufacturing process measures with control charts
    • Shewhart 1920s
  • Sample & stop process if necessary
  • No improvement, but maintains current process
off line improvement
Off-Line Improvement
  • Designed experiments
    • Taguchi & Classical Statistics 1980s
  • Continuous improvement of product designs and manufacturing processes
  • Identification of “leverage” relative to improvement
  • Optimization of process parameters
statistical methods for quality control improvement
Statistical Methods for Quality Control & Improvement
  • Method - Relative Savings
    • Acceptance Sampling ($1)
    • On-Line Process Control ($10)
    • Off-Line Process Improvement ($100)
six sigma motorola
Six Sigma - Motorola
  • Six Sigma = 2 defects per billion opportunities!
  • Applied ubiquitously (originally production focused)
    • identify problem;
    • develop measurement;
    • set goal;
    • close gap
  • Utilizes statistical methods
    • Training levels defined for personnel
dmaic chapter 2
DMAIC – Chapter 2
  • DMAIC is a structured problem-solving technique consisting of the following steps:
    • Define
    • Measure
    • Analyze
    • Improve
    • Control
  • DMAIC is usually associated with six sigma.
reading
Reading
  • Text coverage of the introductory material
    • Chapter 1
    • Chapter 2
  • Reading assignment
    • Chapter 3 – see syllabus
  • Reminder:
    • There is a lab this week.